Showing posts with label Famous Therapie. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Famous Therapie. Show all posts

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Tai Chi

Tai Chi
Tai Chi Chuan is the ancient Chinese art of moving meditation. It is based on the Taoist understanding that all things comprise the harmony of two complementary forces - Yin and Yang.
With its distinctive grace and flowing movements, Tai Chi Chuan is becoming an increasingly popular form of relaxation in the West, as it provides an effective antidote to the stresses of our competitive society. Many people practise Tai Chi solely for its benefits to our health and as a means to relieve tension. However, as its name implies (Tai Chi Chuan translates as "supreme ultimate boxing") Tai Chi is also an effective martial art, and in the hands of a qualified master, is without equal. To achieve this level of understanding takes many years of dedicated study and practice, consequently it is not suitable for people whose sole concerns are self defence. 

Through the study of Tai Chi, we learn not to rely on external strength and hardness in order to overcome opponents and obstacles, but rather we apply principles such as the yielding overcoming the unyielding, the soft overcoming the hard. As the body gradually learns to soften and yield, the mind follows suit becoming more open and flexible. This increased openness and sensitivity, combined with the understanding of yielding and the ability to calmly focus one's attention in a spontaneous manner, leads to greater connection with the environment and the energy of others. A clearer perception of the "heart of the matter" develops - this, in turn, increases our ability to diffuse situations that might normally lead to open conflict.

Consistent and diligent practice will restore one's mind and spirit to its original state of integrity. Tai Chi reconnects the mind to the body; the conscious to the unconscious and the individual to his or her environment. It reveals the battle within ourselves and teaches, over time, a more appropriate and natural way of being.
Alex Maunder's mission statement:
"I facilitate energy transformation. I help organisations and individuals to see where their energy flow is blocked through self-limiting patterns of thought and behaviour and poor communication skills. When these blockages are removed the energy will flow effortlessly towards achieving a clearly perceived and visualised goal."
In Re-sourcing Personal Consultations, I teach a simple three-step approach to self-transformation which I have developed after years of research and practice.This is based on viewing the body as a map of the sub-conscious mind, and using changes in body posture and muscular release as a key to simultaneous shifts on the mental and emotional level.
In six sessions we will be training new capabilities, transforming blockages in key areas and rescripting certain limiting, sub-conscious habit patterns and assumptions.
I use the term re-sourcing because I believe that everyone has within them an infinite source of vitality, wisdom and creativity which can be contacted to provide inner guidance for living a successful, satisfying and balanced life.
I work with individuals and corporations to improve skills in the following areas: stress management, communication skills, collaborative problem solving, coping with change, facilitating creativity and bringing Alexander Technique into the workplace.

Sound Wave Energy

Sound Wave Energy

Introduced in 1995, Advanced Sound-Wave Energy has become a dynamic tool for personal transformation. This energy uses vibrating sound waves via non-touch application to make changes directly related to the electromagnetic field, the light body and the polarized magnetic grid. The application of this energy releases stress, improves health and allows for emotional reinforcement. The energy is intently directed and naturally assisted by the practitioner's various hand movements.
Degenerative energy flow in the body creates emotional and physical stress and tension. In individual sessions Advanced Sound-Wave Energy has been shown to be beneficial for the following conditions: sluggish immune and lymphatic systems operations, excessive toxins in the body, high levels of anxiety, general fears and depression, being out of touch with oneself, lack of trust, lack of direction in life, and inability to make decisions.
As the energy fields are enhanced through the Advanced Sound-Wave Energy, many positive, life-changing benefits are noted. Some of the results are: reinforcement of psychological and emotional stability, increased objectivity, greater sense of body awareness, clearer senses, stronger bipolar operations, and stress reduction.

We are recipients of audible and inaudible sound waves daily. Human hearing can perceive sound in the 20 - 20 000 hertz range. Sounds beyond our hearing range exist and can affect us physically. An excellent example is an ultrasound test. Physically we cannot hear the sounds of the ultrasound, but we can se the results of the ultrasound test on a monitor that can perceive and interpret the sound. The Advanced Sound-Wave Energy also operates in the inaudible range of human hearing. When the energy is transmitted, it transfers inaudible sound waves via quasar light through the physical plane to affect the entire light body and to adjust the body's energetic fields.
Advanced Sound-Wave Energy is an extremely focused and concentrated energy. The energy is rapidly transferred to the recipient; a general session can last 20-40 minutes. Traditional hands-on therapy often takes much longer to produce similar results. The energy continues to work after delivery for weeks and often months.
Many energetic systems permeate the body. Each system has its own pattern of bio-electromagnetic energy. Polarized energy flows up and down, between the poles of any given body system. The magnetic grid energies move vertically, horizontally and perpendicularly within the polarized energy flow. The light energy fields move in all directions simultaneously. Each system has this three-fold energetic makeup. All of the various magnetic systems are interconnected, forming a network of grids. As Advanced Sound-Wave Energy Therapy is passed to a recipient, it first reaches the interconnected magnetic grids in the body and then proceeds outward to other levels until it permeates the skin, finally moving into the remaining energy fields.
Advanced Sound-Wave Energy begins to affect the magnetic grid first. It is the only energy that currently reaches the body's polarized magnetic fields. As the energy travels through the body to the dense magnetic areas, it reinforces, realigns and clears the energy flow. The areas of the bones, teeth, blood and lymphatic systems are first charged with energy. As the energy enters the body, it seeks areas that are energetically dense. The sound-wave energy then opens up these blocked areas and permits the practitioner to pull or shake the blocked energy off, loosens or releases stress, and improves the flow of energy. Lateral alignments on the body can now be adjusted to ease the stress that can result in muscle, joint and tendon discomfort. After these points are adjusted, the practitioner may choose several additional movements to facilitate additional clearing.
The light body is now expanded to facilitate chakra re-balancing and realignment. Stagnant and blocked energy in the light body field or in the chakras is released. Also, the power pivot points where the chakras meet are adjusted, increasing the stability of the light body and psychological character of the vertical and horizontal fields. Additionally, as stressed energy is removed, the light body is also saturated with sound-wave energy as quasar light. This infixing process allows the energy to continue to operate for the next couple of weeks in your energetic fields. This process allows the recipient to integrate a healthier self-expression and improves the emotional interaction with others. It also promotes understanding of self in relationships.
This work produces more positive emotions, reduces negative patterns and encourages overall balance of all energy functions. It has been found that it removes deep-rooted fears from people in the first session, and helps to bring about the total integration of the mind and the body. This results in grounding and simpleness of life. The goal we are trying to achieve is living without stress in peace and tranquillity with clarity. 


Shiatsu is a form of therapeutic massage, literally translated as finger (shi) pressure (atsu). Pressure is applied to certain points (tsubo) on the body's meridians, invisible energy channels which connect different parts of our body. When our body is in a state of illness, this indicates that there is disharmony and obstructions within the system. By stimulating the tsubo, shiatsu aims to get the vital life energy or Qi moving freely again, thus inwardly restoring balance, and outwardly relieving pain, aches and tension. A shiatsu therapist will use the hands, arms, elbows, knees and feet, as well as the thumbs and fingers on the patient's body, according to what work is needed. As such, there is no set routine or order for a shiatsu treatment, and it varies from patient to patient.
Shiatsu began in Japan as a method of self-treatment, derived from amna, an ancient oriental massage therapy involving rubbing and manipulation of the hands and feet. Initially passed down from generation to generation as a technique to cope with minor ailments oneself at home, within the last century, shiatsu has become one of the most widely used treatments in Japan today. Now also popular in the West, shiatsu has developed into a preventative and therapeutic technique. 

Shiatsu is a form of bodywork and healing. Like acupuncture, it is based on Chinese medicine and the concepts of Yin, Yang and Ki or universal energy.
Shiatsu takes place on a futon mattress and the receiver remains fully dressed. The practitioner uses thumbs, hands and sometimes elbows and knees to apply pressure to meridians, or energy lines, and to specific acupressure points. Combined with stretches and rotations of limbs, these techniques can adjust the body's physical structure, stimulate the flow of the body's vital energy and blood and help to relieve pain or discomfort. Shiatsu is not just directed at symptom pain or relief, but aims to rebalance the whole person on physical, mental and emotional levels and to eradicate a deeper imbalance or the cause of a condition.

Recommendations may be given, focussing on posture, specific exercises, relaxation techniques, stress management, diet and lifestyle.
Shiatsu is a very effective and powerful way to treat and prevent ill health and to maintain good health. It can relieve stress-related and chronic conditions and many health complaints, including anxiety, depression, insomnia, fatigue, headaches, digestive disorders, menstrual dysfunctions, low resistance to infection, rheumatic and arthritic complaints, asthma, conditions following sprains and physical injuries, muscular tension, aches and pain in the neck and back, and sciatica.

Sex Therapy

Sex Therapy
I became a sex therapist in the mid-1970s because I was impressed with how well standard sex therapy techniques were able to help people overcome embarrassing problems such as difficulty having an orgasm, painful intercourse, premature ejaculation, and impotence. The use of sex education, self-awareness exercises, and a series of behavioral techniques could cure many of these problems within a matter of only several months. I noticed that as people learned more about the sexual workings of their bodies and gained confidence with their sexual expressions, they would also feel better about themselves in other areas of their lives.
But there were always a number of people in my practice who had difficulty with sex therapy and the specific techniques I gave them as "homework." They would procrastinate and avoid doing the exercises, would do them incorrectly, or, if they could manage some exercises, would report getting nothing out of them. Upon further exploration I discovered that those clients had me major factor in common: a history of childhood sexual abuse.
Besides how they reacted to standard techniques, I noticed other differences between my survivor and nonsurvivor clients. Many survivors seemed ambivalent or neutral about the sexual problems they were experiencing. Gone was the usual sense of frustration that could fuel a client's motivation to change. Survivors often entered counseling because of a partner's frustration with the sexual problems, and they seemed more disturbed by the consequences of sexual problems than by their existence. Margaret,1 an incest survivor, tearfully confided during her first session, "I'm afraid my husband will leave me if I don't become more interested in sex. Can you help me be the sexual partner he wants me to be?"

Many of the survivors I talked with had been to sex therapists before, with no success. They had histories of persistent problems that seemed immune to standard treatments. What was even more revealing was that survivors kept sharing with me a set of symptoms, in addition to sexual functioning problems, that challenged my skills as a sex therapist. These included --
  • Avoiding or being afraid of sex.
  • Approaching sex as an obligation.
  • Feeling intense negative emotions when touched, such as fear, guilt, or nausea.
  • Having difficulty with arousal and feeling sensation.
  • Feeling emotionally distant or not present during sex.
  • Having disturbing and intrusive sexual thoughts and fantasies.
  • Engaging in compulsive or inappropriate sexual behaviors.
  • Having difficulty establishing or maintaining an intimate relationship.

Considering their sexual histories, touch problems, and responses to counseling, I quickly realized that traditional sex therapy was horribly missing the mark for survivors. Standard treatments such as those described in the early works of William Masters, Virginia Johnson, Lonnie Barbach, Bernie Zilbergeld, and Helen Singer Kaplan often left survivors feeling discouraged, disempowered, and in some cases, retraumatized. Survivors approached sex therapy from an entirely different angle than other clients did. Thus they required an entirely different style and program of sex therapy.

Over the course of the last 20 years, the practice of sex therapy has changed considerably. I believe many of these changes were the results of adjustments other sex therapists and I made to be more effective in treating sexual abuse survivors. To illustrate, I will show how sex therapists have challenged and changed six old tenets of traditional sex therapy through treating survivors.
Tenet 1: All Sexual Dysfunctions Are "Bad"
In general, traditional sex therapy viewed all sexual dysfunctions as bad; the goal of treatment being to cure them right away. Techniques were directed toward this goal, and therapeutic success was determined by it. But the sexual dysfunctions of some survivors were, in fact, both functional and important. Their sexual problems helped them avoid feelings and memories associated with past sexual abuse.
When Donna entered therapy for difficulty achieving orgasm, she seemed most concerned with the effect her problem was having on her marriage. She had read many articles and a few books on how to increase orgasmic potential but had never followed through with any suggested exercises. For several months, I worked unsuccessfully with her, trying to help her stick with a sexual enrichment program.
Then we decided to shift the focus of her treatment. I asked Donna about her childhood. She reported some information that hinted at the possibility of childhood sexual abuse. Donna said that during her upbringing her father was an alcoholic whose personality changed when he was drunk. She disliked it whenever he touched her, she pleaded with her mom for a dead-bolt lock on her bedroom door when she was 11 years old, and she had few memories of her childhood in general.
After several sessions during which we discussed dynamics in her family of origin, Donna told me she had a very upsetting dream [that included a graphic description of sexual abuse by her father that the client felt was historically true].

No wonder Donna had been unable to climax. The physical experience of orgasm had been intimately associated with her past abuse. Her sexual dysfunction had been protecting her from the memory of her father's assault.
In numerous other cases, I encountered a similar process. Steve, a 25-year-old recovering alcoholic, had a chronic problem with premature ejaculation. As we explored his inner psychological experience in therapy, he was able to identify that when he allowed himself to delay ejaculation, he would start to feel an urge to rape his partner. Premature ejaculation was protecting him from this very upsetting feeling. It wasn't until he connected this urge to rape with his intense rage at his mother for sexually abusing him as a child that he was able to resolve the internal conflict and comfortably prolong gratification.
Impressing upon Donna or Steve the idea that their sexual dysfunctions were bad would have done them a disservice. Their dysfunctions were powerful coping techniques.
I also encountered another type of situation that challenged the old tenet that sexual dysfunctions are bad. For some survivors who had experienced little difficulty with sexual functioning, the onset of sexual dysfunction signaled a new level of recovery from sexual abuse.

Tony was a 35-year-old single man who had been in and out of abusive relationships for years. His partners were often sexually demanding and generally critical. Tony's father had raped him repeatedly when he was young, and his mother had molested him in his teens. As Tony resolved issues related to his past abuse, his choice of partners improved. One day he told me that he had been unable to function sexually with his new girlfriend. This was extremely unusual for him.
"She wanted to have sex, so she began to do oral sex on me," Tony explained. "I got an erection and then lost it and couldn't get it back." "Did you want to be having sex?" I asked him. "No, I really wasn't interested then," he replied. "So your body was saying no for you," I remarked. "Yeah, I guess so," he said somewhat proudly. "Wow, do you realize what's happening?" I declared, "You're becoming congruent! For all these years, your genitals have operated separately from how you really felt. Now your head, heart, and genitals are lining up congruently. Good for you!"
That day in therapy with Tony was a turning point for me as a sex therapist. l was amazed that I was actually congratulating him on his temporary sexual dysfunction. It felt appropriate. Instead of functioning, the goal of treatment shifted to self-awareness, self-care, trust, and intimacy-building. Insight and authenticity became more important than behavioral functioning.
While healthy sexual functioning is a desirable long-term goal, conveying the idea that all dysfunctions are bad and must be immediately cured is too simplistic. In working with survivors and others, sex therapists need to see sexual problems in context and we need to find out how people feel about a symptom before attempting to treat it. Therapists must respect dysfunctions, learn from them, work with them, and resist the urge to automatically try to change them.
Tenet 2: All Consensual Sex Is Good
In general, traditional sex therapy didn't make distinctions between different types of sex as long as sex was consensual and did not cause physical harm. That way of thinking does not hold up considering the sexual addictions and compulsions that are by products of sexual abuse. Little distinction was given to the type of sex that fostered addictive and compulsive behavior. The lack of distinction between the more specific nature of sexual interaction has left some people, including survivors, fearful of all sex. From working with survivors we have learned that sexual addictions and compulsions develop to a type of sex that incorporates or mimics the dynamics of sexual abuse.
On business trips Mark, a married man with two children, could not stop himself from cruising strange neighborhoods looking for pretty women whom he could watch from inside his car while masturbating. He knew all the video parlors in a four-state area and could not pass one without stopping to masturbate. He sought counseling because his wife had caught him in bed with his secretary. She threatened to leave him unless he got help.
When Mark entered therapy he described himself as being addicted to sex. I asked him to describe sex. He used terms like, "out-of-control, impulsive, exciting and degrading."
Mark's preoccupation and addiction was to a type of sex that was fueled by secrecy and shame. It was undertaken in a high state of dissociation; filled with anxiety; focused on stimulation and release; and lacking in true caring, emotional intimacy, and social responsibility. This type of sex was associated with power, control, dominance, humiliation, fear, and treating people as objects. It was the same type of sex that he was exposed to as a young man when his mother's best friend would pull down his pants, molest him, and laugh at him.
Helping Mark recover involved helping him make connections between what happened to him in the past and his present behavior. He needed to learn the difference between abusive and healthy sex. Sex, per se, was not the problem. It was the type of sex he had learned and developed arousal patterns to that had to change. Healthy sex, like healthy laughter, incorporates choice and self-respect. It is not addictive.
To help people overcome fears of sex, sex therapy involves teaching conditions for healthy sexuality. These include consent, equality, respect, safety, responsibility, emotional trust, and intimacy. While abstinence can be an important part of recovery from sexual addictions, it won't be enough unless new concepts and approaches to sex are also learned.


Rolfing® structural integration is an interactive process between Rolfer® and client, the goal of which is to integrate the client's physical body in gravity.
What does integration feel like? Balanced, comfortable and a feeling of wholeness and vitality are some descriptions often used to describe the effects of rolfing.
How does it work? This process includes physical manipulation of the soft connective tissue (fascia), and movement education. These two methods are often used in conjunction to introduce beneficial change in posture and movement habits e.g. as the rolfer does the slow, gentle manipulation to stretch and mold the sheets and layers of fascia in the body, (s)he might ask the client to do specific movements. These often subtle movements contribute to the lasting effects of the work, by neuro-muscularly re-educating the areas worked with. In this way new habits are introduced. These physiologically more efficient habits can range from a more integrated and fluid way of walking, to an athletic movement sequence, to having more freedom of expression through body language.

How long does it take? The basic rolfing process usually consists of about ten sessions of 60 - 90 mins. duration, usually spread over a period of about 8 - 12 weeks. Each session has a specific set of goals, which build on each other as the process continues, to bring about change that is lasting and empowering to the client. In this way the work progresses from superficial to deep, from differentiation to integration.
What does it feel like? Experiencing this work is very different from person to person, from session to session, from area to area being worked on. Sensations range from pleasurable warmth and tingling, to momentary intensity similar to the feeling of deep stretching. Rolfer and client work together with the level of sensation, balance between intensity and comfort, rhythm of breathing, the body's autonomic responses to the process of change, to work with the process and to follow the client's individual experience.
Are these changes in the body proven by scientific methods? Yes. Rolfing is a scientifically validated system, originated by Dr. Ida P. Rolf in the USA. She described her unique vision and insight into our anatomy and the changeability of our structure in her book: "Rolfing: Reestablishing the natural alignment and structural integration of the body for vitality and well-being".
Research done by Dr. Valerie Hunt (author of "Infinite Mind') at UCLA validated the improvements in movement and posture brought about by rolfing. An abstract of her research is available from the Rolf Instiitute. She also describes her research in her book.
Books, articles and abstracts of several research projects are available from the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration.
Who comes to rolfing? People from all walks of life and a wide variety of reasons are attracted to rolfing. In my practise in south africa, I have worked with people from age 1 - 78. Motivations for coming included improvement of posture and athletic ability; chronic aches and pains esp. back, neck and headaches; breathing problems; stress; an adjunct to psychotherapeutic process; personal growth; etc.
Any change in the physical body affects the whole person. Rolfing is a wholistic process which values these changes, which clients often describe as a more positive outlook on life, and an increased ability to handle emotional changes.
"someone used their elbow and said it was rolfing…"
Rolfing is not a technique, it is a process using a wide range of techniques to communicate integration. The words 'rolfing' and 'rolfer' are registered service marks of the rolf institute of structural integration.


ReflexologyReflexology is a form of ancient Chinese and Egyptian healing centred around the massage of reflex areas in the feet and lower leg. Each part of the foot corresponds to a part of the body with the left foot representing the left side of the body and the right foot representing the right side. Half way down each foot, a line can be drawn which corresponds to the waist line of the body. The organs in the upper part of the body have their reflex areas in the upper part of the foot, and those in the lower part of the body have their reflex areas in the lower part of the foot.
Although reflexology is an ancient therapy, it was not until the beginning of the century that it became known to the Western world. An American doctor, William Fitzgerald, became interested in the possibility of treating organs through pressure points distant from the actual organs themselves, and described how the body could be divided into ten vertical zones. Thus if the right kidney is located in a certain zone in the body, its reflex point would be found in the same zone on the right foot. From this point, treatment can be applied.
Recent surveys carried out along scientific lines reveal that reflexology has helped a wide number of people with conditions such as stress, backpain, migraines, period-related problems and many other symptoms. Examples of specific illnesses being aided by reflexology are diabetes, sciatica, angina and multiple sclerosis.

A one off treatment can be of significant help, although a number of treatments within a short space of time would be ideal - it is then that the real results happen.

FACIAL REJUVENATION is an excellent treatment to reduce the army of wrinkles, the perpetual frown and the dreaded bags under the eyes. It also tightens the skin and the slackening jaw line.
The connective tissues of the skin itself are made up of cells which secrete collagen fibres. These weave together to form a net-like structure. Facial rejuvenation works by releasing the stuck tissues gently helping the connective tissue to regain its freedom and elasticity releasing tension in over 90 muscles.
An added benefit is that the therapy leaves you feeling happier, relaxed and stress-free.
The treatment takes 1 hour and a series of 8 to 10 are recommended for maximum benefit.
Look Years Younger, Become More Relaxed and Feel Full of Vitality!
What is Rejuvanessence ?
Rejuvanessence is a fingertip face-lift which gives you a more youthful and healthy appearance.

How does Rejuvanessence work ?
Rejuvanessence releases tension in the 91 muscles of the face, neck, skull and shoulders. It also works on the connective tissue to make it more elastic and flexible and enables the skin to gain back the radiance of youthfulness.

Skin has two layers, the epidermis and the dermis. Stress and tension cause these layers to tighten around the blood vessels and lymph glands. This means that the flow of the nutrients and the oxygen is depleted and the waste products build up in the cells causing a lack-lustre complexion. Tense muscles have bad circulation which blocks energy paths causing tension, pain and discomfort. The face becomes drawn and tight, ageing sets in and lines begin to form.
Rejuvanessence lifts up your face by gently helping to release the tightened tissues. Skin regains its flexibility and your face looks open and relaxed, smoother, younger and happier. As the course of treatments progresses and the therapist works on the deeper layers of the muscles, lines and wrinkles begin to lessen and the skin tone is firmed and improved.
Rejuvanessence also works on the acupressure points and meridians to release this blocked energy thus relieving headache, jaw, neck and shoulder pain. The energy in the body is balanced, the nervous system fine-tuned and harmony of mind, body and soul is restored.
What happens during a Rejuvanessence treatment ?
A course of Rejuvanessence treatment comprises of six sessions of one hour, each working on different groups of connective tissues and muscles. It is a gentle, pleasant, safe and loving treatment that brings positive results.

As well as looking younger, clients often say that they have a real sense of well being. In fact, they feel invigorated, rejuvenated and ready to face any challenge!
Benefits of releasing tensions from the Facial Muscles
The face is our primary organ of emotional expression. When we want to see what a person is feeling, we look at their face. Overt trauma or stress sets itself in our facial muscles. Thinking about negative experiences of the past or imagining their recurrence in the future, restimulates these same muscular patterns. Even the act of repressing emotions so that other people will not see what we feel, leaves its traces - not only in the stiffness that we use as a mask, but also in the expression that we hoped to hide from the eyes of others.

After a while, we get so used to the patterns of tension, that we no longer notice them. People can go around with the same stress and strain in their face for 20, 30, or even 40 years without being aware of it. When they relax the physical and mental tensions it is fantastic.
By working on the connective tissue that encases the muscles, we create space for the muscles to relax. The muscles get more elastic and tone up. The face achieves a flexible, lively balance, shaping and stretching the skin towards the optimal, harmonious form.
Long Term Improvement of the Skin
The skin is divided into two layers. The epidermis is the outer layer made up of the skin cells themselves. The next layer is the dermis and this is made up of connective tissue. The blood vessels that carry the oxygen as well as the substances that feed the skin cells, are embedded in this connective tissue.

Tension in this connective tissue will tighten the areas around these blood vessels and cut down the flow of blood to the skin cells. Not only are they unable to get the nourishment they need, they are also unable to get rid of the waste products from cellular metabolism. The connective tissue of the skin itself is made up of living cells. These cells secrete collagen fibres which weave together to form a net-like structure. The cells also secrete the gelatin-like ground substance that fills the space between the fibres.
What we call ageing of the skin is primarily a stiffening of the gelatin of the ground substance. The chains of the molecules that make up the ground substance get bound together in long chains. The gelatin becomes hard and stiff. The skin of the face becomes less flexible. Lines and wrinkles become set. Furthermore, the hardening of the connective tissue of the skin can "glue" the skin to the layers below - to those connective tissues surrounding the muscles or the bones.
The special light touch of Rejuvanessence mobilises the body's own resources to release the molecular tension. Suddenly the ground substance becomes fluid again. This restores the vitality and mobility of the face. Layers that had been glued together become unstuck. The skin can slide freely above the deeper layers of muscle and bone. The unique quality of Rejuvanessence is the lasting effect on the connective tissue, which softens the skin, restores mobility to our expression and improves our complexion.
Improve the function of the jaw
The jawbone is moved by four major muscles on each side. If these are out of balance, people have tension on the joint, have problems chewing properly and grind their teeth when they sleep. In addition, if these muscles do not function properly in a balanced way, other muscles are used to compensate. Some of these muscles create double chins or unsightly rope-like folds in the skin of the throat.

Rejuvanessence will make you look better
Set expressions of anger, fear and sadness melt - leaving a more relaxed, joyful, satisfied expression. Lines, bags, sags and wrinkles diminish. The face becomes more flexible, responsive and youthful looking. The complexion improves noticeably, the texture of the skin becomes silky, the colour from increased circulation's shines through. The face shows more spontaneous expressions and looks more alive.

Rejuvanessence will make you feel better
The American psychologist William James asked the question - "Do we run because we are afraid, or are we afraid because we run?" In other words, is our body language the result of our emotions, or is our physical expression the cause of our feelings and mood? Conventional wisdom now has it that by changing our facial expression, we in fact key in different feelings. As a result of relaxing we have a more pleasant expression, send out different signals. People notice and treat us better accordingly.

Rejuvanessence will improve the breathing and function of the senses. Unnecessary tensions in the muscles around the nose and mouth have a noticeable and limiting effect on the breathing capacity. A smile will increase breathing capacity markedly. Sometimes people tell us that after their sessions, they see, hear and even taste things better.
Rejuvanessence brings symptom relief
Headaches, for example migraines, even those which have been chronic for many years often disappear during the course of the six sessions. The effects of scar tissue from accidents involving the face, scalp and neck can be minimised. Hard aching shoulders get soft and painless again and the nervous system is rebalanced. Rejuvanessence releases blockages in the body and helps your energies to flow again.

The toxic face
We all know what a toxic face is although we may not call it that. Bloated, unhealthy - above all unattractive, are the first words that come to mind. Toxicity reflects in the face in various ways and in different degrees. Bags under the eyes are the first sign. Deep lines around the mouth and grey, ageing skin also mark a toxic face - which incidentally has nothing whatever to do with mature healthy skin which can look wonderful at any age. Your kidneys, liver, intestines and even heart must all function to optimum capacity in order to be and look truly healthy. Yet these are the very organs that time and time again we place colossal strain on by overeating, drinking, smoking and piling on the stress. Such a lifestyle will build up toxins in the system, which are stored in fatty tissues in t
he body and face.

Reiki Therapies

Reiki Therapies
Reiki Therapies An introduction to Reiki
If you have never experienced Reiki, the following is an explanation of what you might expect from a treatment. A Reiki treatment usually lasts between sixty and ninety minutes. The Reiki practitioner places his/her hands gently and passively on different locations on the body, usually beginning at the head. Each position is held for at least five minutes. Reiki is different from traditional massage because the person may remain fully clothed. Unlike massage, Reiki does not require any form of manipulation of tissue or muscles so the hands remain still. Reiki will even flow through a plaster cast.
It is common for the person being treated to experience sensations such as warmth or tingling flowing from the Reiki practitioner's hands. Most people report entering a very deep state of relaxation. Those familiar with meditation say they enter a deep meditative state. The mind calms, the breathing slows down, and a feeling of well-being and centredness and a better sense of perspective is attained.
By receiving a one-hour session of Reiki, one physiologically attains many of the benefits equivalent to three to four hours sleep, such as increased oxygen supply to the blood and cells. This clinical observation, combined with the meditative state, makes Reiki a most effective natural stress reliever.
Regular use of Reiki leads to an increase in general vitality and well-being and a sense of inner peace. It greatly accelerates and promotes the healing process and regeneration of tissue, and is capable of improving the quality of one's life to an amazing degree.

Reiki cannot be learned from a book or by instruction. It is one of the ancient mysteries of the world and the activation of Reiki in your hands occurs only through a process referred to as an `attunement' or `initiation' which is given by a Reiki Master.
An important difference between Reiki and other effective energy therapies is that, once it has been activated in your hands, you have it for life and you are able to treat yourself. Most other energy healing systems do not extend beyond the ability to treat others.
In many other natural energy healing systems the practitioner is limited by his/her own physical and spiritual development and is often in danger of depleting his/her own energy in the process of treating others. As you will soon understand, this difference is one of Reiki's primary benefits.
Reiki can be explained in many ways. It can be considered an energy science which makes sense from the perspective of some theories within the field of quantum physics. This is discussed in chapter two. It can also be seen as a state of manifesting consciousness, which is discussed in the second part of this book. Whatever the explanation, it is an ancient healing/harmonizing therapy rapidly becoming recognized among health practitioners as a safe and highly effective complementary therapy to all other forms of health care.
Since the 1970s, when Reiki first began to spread significantly in the Western World, clinical observation has enabled the establishment of a more scientific understanding of Reiki. Although many Masters still prefer to teach Reiki in the traditional manner, others are now adding to the traditional teachings the added insight provided by modern science. There are forces in the universe that have been around for many thousands of years such as anti-matter, curved space, subatomic energy, etc.. Now that such phenomena are being explained in scientific terms, we are beginning to have a deeper understanding of the implications of these discoveries in our daily lives.
As human beings, most of us require more than just spiritual catch words or blind faith before we can accept the validity of such techniques as Reiki. To many people it constitutes the use of an energy outside the normal realms of human experience and credibility.
There are those who have personal beliefs as to the origins and dynamics of Reiki and prefer to impart these impressions to their students. In the following chapters we hope to move outside the sphere of individual or personal belief systems. We will endeavor to present those scientific and philosophical properties that make Reiki what it is.
Ashley was three years old and spending two or three days a week in hospital with serious asthma attacks. She was frail, weak, pale and had difficulty even walking a few hundred yards. We initiated Ashley and her parents to Reiki. Ashley immediately understood the significance of that incredible energy in her "magic hands", as she called them. She found that whenever she lay quietly and placed her hands on her body, they switched on and became warm and nurturing. Her energy levels increased daily and the trips to the hospital decreased. Mom and Dad did not need to give her Reiki treatments. Ashley took full responsibility for her own recovery by treating herself daily with Reiki.
Three months later Ashley had her last asthma attack. One year later Ashley was a strong, robust little girl off all medication and with a zest for life. She has successfully treated the next door neighbor's arthritic dog and spontaneously places her "magic hands" on anyone she meets who is sick or in pain with outstanding results.
Ashley is one of our many initiates who have inspired our book "Reiki - the science, metaphysics, and philosophy."
The science of Reiki
Reiki is an energy which has been known in the west for only a few decades. It is practiced by over one million people which, when compared to the world population, is certainly little more than a smattering.
To explain Reiki from a scientific point of view we need to discuss some concepts of science first. Scientific validation arises in many ways. It is popular to give a rational understanding of the mechanics of some phenomena based on the logic of `sound' scientific principles.
Your typical example of this is the `rational' explanation of Reiki using the terms - `subatomic matter' ; `unpolarized'; `vortex theory'; `mirror imaging' etc. These sound good and are probably the best way of appeasing the need for a rational explanation which so many Reiki Practitioners have. There is, however, a flaw. The mere use of physics terminology is not a scientific validation of Reiki! That is only a rational explanation based on common (but often contradictory) terms used in physics. (As will be discussed later, we can apply those labels to Reiki based upon our observations.)
The whole field of high energy physics is new and pioneering. When you are explaining it to a layperson, it is totally appropriate to generalize and use the scientific (unpolarized, subatomic etc.) terms we use because we are using them to establish a conceptual framework for the understanding of the clinical manifestations of Reiki - not to validate Reiki.
Reiki is `nonpolarized' subatomic energy that is released as a harmonic into energy blueprints (e.g. - the body) that are in a state of disharmony. Once it leaves the subatomic world, it must polarize because it is entering the physical, manifest world where it is acted upon by time. Because it is, by nature, a harmonic, it will polarize and form a `mirror image' of any disharmonious frequency in that energy blueprint, thereby restoring normal harmony and well being. This, in turn, accelerates the natural healing processes of the body.
To validate and explain that definition we must use the scientific process of clinical observation and the logical rationalization of the results. Most of the things we utilize in our daily lives are there because they work consistently. If they didn't, they would be discarded. If a new drug is tried clinically and gets good consistent results (without significant side effects) it is used because the observed results validate it! Once that drug stops working or proves to have bad side effects, it is discarded and considered no longer valid.
This is very important to understand. We cannot validate or prove Reiki with fancy charts or scientific terms. These things are great for explaining frameworks and actions. Validation, at this early stage, comes from our own clinical hands-on experience and the experience of hundreds of thousands of Reiki practitioners using Reiki daily for the past few decades.
When we list the observations made my Reiki practitioners and their patients, we start to build up a clinical picture which will tell us a great deal about Reiki.


RadionicsRadionics is a form of energy healing, which works by first restoring the energetic, rather than the physical body of the patient. It is believed that each individual emits a specific radiation, or energy pattern. The nature of disease is seen as being electrical, meaning that if one is unwell, this imbalance is reflected in the radiation pattern (in the form of disturbances, changes in the pattern etc.). By reading the pattern, it can be determined in what state of health one is. Radionics is aimed at correcting the energy field until the 'normal' radiation pattern is restored, thus eradicating illness and disease, and indicating that the body is once again in a healthy and balanced state. Radionics also claims to correct potential problems before they have even manifested physically in the body. It is a completely non-physical therapy, and as such, both diagnosis and treatment are performed without the patient having to come into contact with the practitioner.

Origin of radionics
The term 'radionics' comes from the words 'radiation' and 'electronics', coined by the American neurologist, Albert Abrams, in the 1920s. Abrams claimed to be able to ascertain whether a patient was healthy or diseased merely by measuring the radiation he/she emitted. Initially, Abrams measured his patients' radiation by swinging a pendulum over their bodies and observing the action of the pendulum. Later, he could carry out this same practice simply by measuring a sample of tissue, e.g.. lock of hair, drop of blood, without the patient even physically present. Abrams subsequently designed a biodynamometer (known as The Black Box), an instrument whereby radiation could be measured, and which is still used by radionics practitioners today. In an era where the concept of humans emitting radiation and having energy fields was disregarded by most, radionics was nevertheless passed by the Royal Association of Medicine in 1924 as an accepted practice. It was most popular amongst those practising dowsing, who then adopted the theory of radionics, and were known as radiesthestists.
How does radionics work ?
As radionics is based on the principle that healing must first take place on an energetic level, it is important that the practitioner has access to the patient's energy field. This is where the tissue sample is used - the practitioner can read the energy field that is radiated from the sample using special instruments, and thus diagnose any problems. Healing is then administered in the same way: the practitioner adjusts the energy field of the sample, which is then in turn said to adjust the field of the entire person. Treatment is therefore not administered directly to the patient, but is rather given in the form of changing the vibration of the sample.

What happens in a radionics treatment ?
Even though the patient needn't have an actual consultation with the practitioner, a detailed history is required: personal medical history, family medical history, current conditions and any medication being taken are all taken into consideration. Together with the tissue sample, the practitioner uses this background information to diagnose the patient. It should be noted that the tissue sample itself is not analysed; it is merely a template for the person as a whole.

This means that a patient cannot actually be given a written report as to where the body is unwell or needs healing. Any healing that is needed is administered via vibrations from the radionics practitioner to the patient, and subsequently occurs through the restoration of the energy field.
How can radionics help ?
Practitioners of radionics believe that it restores vitality and a general sense of well-being back into those who use it. People suffering from conditions like asthma, and other allergies, are said to benefit from radionics, which may also be used give relief from pain. Psychological and emotional problems, including shock and stress can be successfully treated with this therapy. As one practitioner puts it, "most conditions can be helped radionically, if only to help the patient feel better and therefore more able to cope with their symptoms."


Physiotherapy is an established, recognised system of diagnosis and treatment that lays its main emphasis on the structural integrity of the body. It is distinctive in that it recognises that much of the pain and disability we suffer stem from abnormalities in the function of the body structure as well as damage caused to it by disease. Physiotherapy uses many of the diagnostic procedures used in conventional medical assessment and diagnosis. Its main strength, however, lies in the unique way the patient is assessed from a mechanical, functional and postural standpoint and the manual methods of treatment applied to suit the needs of the individual patient.
The skilled techniques of physiotherapy can allow you a speedy return to normal activity. Physiotherapy helps to reduce tissue inflammation by a number of methods ranging from massage of muscles and connective tissues to manipulation and stretching of joints. This helps to reduce muscle spasm and increase mobility, helping to create a healthier state in which damaged tissues can heal.

During the first visit, Siamak takes a full case history of the patient including a static evaluation and simple mobility testing to assess how the whole body relates mechanically to the complaint. This will allow a suitable treatment plan to be developed for you. You will be given guidance on exercise and simple self help methods to use at home. Physiotherapy is patient centred, which means the treatment is geared to you as an individual.

Using personal development techniques from NLP, hypnosis, Time Line Therapy and life coaching, Anthony's approach helps empower his clients to take charge of their lives and expand their emotional and spiritual intelligence. Empowerment coaching can be of massive help for a wide range of issues including career and finances, creativity, relationships, spirituality and overcoming stress.

There are two main options for empowerment coaching:
 Breakthrough sessions offer intense coaching, usually in two three-hour sessions (which can be on the same day). This option is appropriate when there is a specific issue in your life which you would like to solve quickly.
 Ongoing sessions offer a mixture of face-to-face and telephone coaching designed to make profound changes across your life.


Aura Imaging is an advanced technique for measuring, picturing and interpreting the bio-electric field we all have around us. The different aura colours contain useful information about our personalities and emotional state.
Anthony's aura imaging sessions include a nine-page print-out explaining your aura in detail. You can enjoy aura imaging in a twenty minute consultation, or as part of an hour long sesion where Anthony will use his empowerment coaching skills to help you begin to improve a specific area of your life (the one-hour option also includes 30 minutes follow-up over the telephone).

In our work as physiotherapists to the Victorian and Australian Institutes of Sport, we have not only treated golfers but have assessed their musculo-skeletal system and assisted in coordinating fitness programs for them. These programs are not only designed to prevent injuries but also to assist in improving good golf biomechanics which will in turn enhance performance in the golfer.

Postural Re-education

Good posture is defined as maintaining the primary and secondary curves of your spine.
Benefits of the correct spinal curvature areas:

 promotes good mobility
 allows even pressure on the spine
 allows golfers' body weight to be transferred over a greater surface area, therefore allowing less stress on the spine
promotes more efficient biomechanical movement and efficient backswing and follow-through.

Deviations and postural problems can occur, for example:

 sway back
 loss of lumbar lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis.

Causes of postural deviations:

 muscle group imbalance and/or weaknesses
 congenital/heredity factors
 occupational and domestic activities.

It is therefore important to do postural re-education exercises to maintain good posture in order to achieve correct address to the golf ball.

Poor Posture = Poor Address = Poor Swing Path. An example of this is an overweight golfer with a large stomach - they will use their arms to compensate for lack of spinal rotation in their back swing and follow-through.
How many times are you in a stressed position? For example,
 prolonged sitting?
 desk work?

To obtain good back swing and follow-through, a good range of spinal rotation (especially through the thoracic spine) is essential. The spine is the main rotational component and pivotal in the golf swing itself. This is apparent when you have experienced having a stiff neck as you will tend to block, thus causing a sliced shot.
Good shoulder mobility in both the right and left shoulders are also important especially at the top of the backswing and in the follow-through.
This is reinforced by good bilateral hip rotation in association with free movement at the wrist and elbow joints. Reduction of this range can be highlighted by golfers who are restricted in range at these specific joints, for example:
Total hip replacement
 Tennis elbow.

Suppleness in the body soft tissue is essential for good flexibility. For example, muscles, tendons, ligaments etc.
Strong and flexible forearms, wrist and hands are essential for good golf.

Specific muscle groups need to be strengthened to prevent injury, improving stability at the joints and increasing clubhead speed thus promoting good correlated muscle group co-ordination, resulting in a smooth and efficient back swing and follow-through. Muscle groups involved in good golf biomechanics are the abdominals, paravertebral, glutei, quadriceps, peronei rotator cuff muscles, forearm flexor and extensor muscle groups and the intrinsic muscles of the hands.
Female golfers are more prone to upper limb injuries and generally require a full upper limb exercise program to prevent injuries and enhance power and stability in all stages of the golf swing, especially on the forward swing phase when the club makes contact with the ball.
Female golfers are, however, generally more mobile in their lumbar-pelvic region compared with men, who lack tone in their abdominals, glutei and paravertebrals, and as a result of poor posture, tend to be stiff and inflexible in the lumbar spine region.
Do Not Forget Good Technique
Whilst these physical factors will prevent injury and contribute to enhancing performance it is essential that a golf professional be consulted for correct technique and the practical application of the golf swing.
A fine balance of strength and flexibility in all muscle groups of the body are required to produce a smooth and efficient golf swing. In the right- and left-handed golfers, the human musculo-skeletal system and certain muscle groups contract while others stretch and extend on the backswing and vice versa on the follow-through. For example, wrist extensors contract to achieve the "cocked" position on the backswing and then relax on the follow-through allowing the opposing muscle group, the wrist flexors, to come into action. To allow effective golf actions to take place, flexibility and strength in the muscle tissue is essential. Stretching programs are therefore compulsory to not only prevent injury but enhance performance in these muscle groups.
One of the more popular therapies for the treatment of a variety of conditions in human and veterinary medicine is the application of a magnetic field. The biological effects of low-level magnetic fields have been studied since the 1500s. The crucial question, however, is whether these effects have any physiological significance. Many claims have been made for the therapeutic effectiveness of magnetic fields, but are there any good reasons for believing them?
The idea that magnetic therapy could be used to treat disease began in the early 16th century with the Swiss physician, philosopher, and alchemist Paracelsus, who used magnets to treat epilepsy, diarrhea, and hemorrhage.1 Magnetic therapy became more popular in the mid-18th century when Franz Mesmer, an Austrian doctor who also helped begin the fields of hypnotism and psychoanalysis (and from whose name the word "mesmerize" was coined), opened a popular magnetic healing salon in Paris. The purpose of the salon was to treat the untoward effects of the body's innate "animal magnetism." In spite of continued condemnation by the scientific community, magnetic therapy became a popular form of treatment by the lay community.
Over the next few centuries, magnetic therapy developed into a form of quackery. In 1799, Elisha Perkins, a Connecticut physician and sometime mule trader, advocated the use of "metallic tractors" for the treatment of various diseases of humans and horses.2 The user of the tractors (small metal magnetic wedges) swept the tractors over the injured area for a few minutes to "draw off the noxious electrical fluid that lay at the foot of suffering." Subjects and observers perceived immediate benefits. They reported their testimonials and Perkins became very rich. Magnetic tractors failed to prevent Dr. Perkins' death due to yellow fever in 1799.
In the late 1800s, the Sears catalogue advertised magnetic boot inserts. Magnetic caps and clothing (with over 700 magnets) were available by mail order from Thatcher's Chicago Magnetic Company. 3 Dr. Thatcher asserted that "magnetism properly applied will cure every curable disease no matter what the cause."4 At the turn of the 20th century, Dr. Albert Abrams, named the "Dean of 20th Century charlatans" by the American Medical Association, postulated that each organ system and patient was "tuned" to a characteristic electromagnetic wavelength. By the time of World War II, physiologic effects of electromagnetic fields no longer received much attention in medical journals.
The history of quackery in the use of magnets has obscured scientific investigations performed on the medical effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields. From a biophysics standpoint, a distinction ismade between the two therapies; magnetic and electromagnetic are not the same

Electricity and Magnetism
Electromagnetism was first discovered in the 1800s by the English physicist Michael Faraday, who determined that a magnetic field could be generated by running an electric current through a wire coil. Conversely, a changing magnetic field can generate an electric voltage; the magnetic field must change to have any electrical effect (hence, the term pulsating electromagnetic field therapy, which generates rising and falling levels of a magnetic field.)
The biological effects of pulsating electromagnetic fields are hypothesized to be due to electrical rather than magnetic forces. Magnetism generates a voltage in tissue according to the equation:
V = n x a x dB/dt

V = Voltage
n = number of turns in the electromagnetic coil
a = area of the loop
dB/dt = The rate of change of magnetic field with respect to time, with B representing the strength of the magnetic field (in Teslas). For example, if B goes from zero to 1 Tesla in 1 millisecond, then dB/dt = 1000 Teslas/sec.
Based on this equation, a static magnetic field cannot generate an electrical voltage, as the dB/dt component of the equation, is zero, as is the voltage induced by the field. Thus, any effects of a static magnetic field on tissue cannot be electrical in nature.
Pulsating Electromagnetic Field Therapy

Extracellular matrix synthesis and repair are subject to regulation both by chemical agents (such as cytokines and growth factors) and physical agents, principally mechanical and electrical stimuli. The precise nature of such electromechanical signals is not known, however. In bone, mechanical and electrical signals may regulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix by stimulating signaling pathways at the cell membrane.6,7 In soft tissue, alternating current electrical fields induce a redistribution of integral cell membrane proteins which, hypothetically, could initiate signal transduction cascades and cause a reorganization of cytoskeletal structures. 8 However, the hypothesis that electrical signals may be responsible for information transfer in or to cells has neither been proved nor disproved.
There is ample evidence that electrical activity exists in the body at all times. For example, electrical currents can be measured in the beating heart and are also generated in the production of bone. Endogenous electrical current densities produced by mechanical loading of bone under physiologic conditions approximate 1 Hz and 0.1 - 1.0 microA/cm2 .9 Thus, it is theorized that application of an appropriate electrical current, either directly through wires or indirectly through induction by a magnetic field, may affect tissues in several ways. The word appropriate in the preceding sentence is important since cells and tissues respond to a variety of electrical signal configurations in ways that suggest a degree of specificity for both the tissue affected and the signal itself.
The most widely studied application of electromagnetic field therapy in human medicine is in fracture therapy. Although the mechanisms remain undetermined, several studies report that electrical fields generated by pulsating electromagnetic field therapy stimulate biologic processes pertinent to osteogenesis10,11,12 and bone graft incorporation. 13,14 This form of therapy is approved for the treatment of delayed and non-union fractures in humans in the U.S. by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Effectiveness of the treatment is supported by at least two double-blind studies.15,16 Pulsating electromagnetic field therapy, however, delays the healing of fresh experimentally induced fractures in rabbits.17
Pulsating electromagnetic field therapy has also been evaluated in the treatment of soft tissue injuries, with the results of some studies providing evidence that this form of therapy may be of value in promoting healing of chronic wounds (such as bedsores)18 , in neuronal regeneration,19,20 and in many other soft tissue injuries.21,22 results of a recent study in an experimental Achilles tendinitis model in rats indicated that there was an initial decrease in water content in injured tendons treated with pulsating electromagnetic field therapy but that all treated groups were equal to controls by 14 days.23The limited value of this form of therapy in the treatment of tendon injuries may be due in part to the lack of significant electrical activity in tendons, activity that could be altered by a pulsating electromagnetic field.
In contrast, a number of investigators have been unable to show any effect of low-level electromagnetic fields on tissue healing. One study, for example, failed to identify any beneficial effect of applying a magnetic field to a non-healing fracture24 and concluded that the long periods of immobilization and inactivity required for the application of the magnetic field therapy were just as likely to be responsible for tissue healing.
Criticisms of pulsating electromagnetic field studies include: some of the studies are poorly designed; independent trials have not been conducted to confirm positive results; and the electrical fields induced by the machines are several orders of magnitude lower than are required to alter the naturally occurring electrical fields that exist across biological membranes.25 Even proponents of the therapy concede that much work needs to be done to optimize such variables as signal configuration and duration of treatment before pulsating electromagnetic field therapy can be generally recommended.26
Static Magnetic Field Therapy
Magnetic devices that radiate an unchanging magnetic field are available in a variety of configurations such as pads, bandages, and even magnetic mattresses. Scientific studies do not support claims of efficacy. Furthermore, a mechanism of action by which such devices might exert these effects remains elusive. Because static magnetic fields do not change, there can be no electrical effect. Hypotheses for an effect of a static field include influencing the electronic spin rate states of chemical reaction intermediates27,28 and influencing cyclical changes in the physical state(s) of water.29 Importantly, neither of these proposed effects has been demonstrated in biological systems under physiological condition.30
In spite of a lack of demonstrable mechanism of action, proponents of applying static magnetic field therapy to injured or painful tissues generally attribute their alleged effects to an increase in local blood circulation. Unfortunately, the scientific evidence in supporting this hypothesis is tenuous at best.
Blood, like all tissues, contains electrically charged ions. A physics principle known as Faraday's Law states that a magnetic field will exert a force on a moving ionic current. Furthermore, an extension of Faraday's law called the Hall effect states that when a magnetic field is placed perpendicular to the direction of flow of an electric current, it will tend to deflect and separate the charged ions. While the deflection of ions will be in opposite directions depending on the magnetic pole encountered and the charge of the ion, this force is not based on the attraction or repulsion of like and unlike charges.
The Hall effect implies that when a magnet is placed over flowing blood in which ionic charges (such as Na+ and Cl-) exist, some force will be exerted on the ions. Furthermore, the separation of ionic charges will produce an electromotive force, which is a voltage between points in a circuit. In theory, this produces a very small amount of heat. These physical effects, which do exist, provide the basis for a quasi-scientific theory to account for the purported effects of static magnetic field therapy. For example:
When a magnetic field with a series of alternating North and South poles is placed over a blood vessel, the influence of the field will cause positive and negative ions (for example, Na+ and Cl-) to bounce back and forth between the sides of the vessel, creating flow currents in the moving blood not unlike those in a river. The combination of the electromotive force, altered ionic pattern, and the currents causes blood vessel dilation with a corresponding increase in blood flow. 31
The problem with using Faraday's law and the Hall effect to explain the purported effects of static magnetic pads is that the magnitude of that force applied by the field is infinitesimally small. Two facts account for the lack of effect. First, the magnetic field applied to the tissue is extremely weak. Second, the flow of the ionic current (i.e., the blood) is extremely slow, especially when compared to the flow of electric current. However, it is possible to estimate the forces applied to flowing blood by a weak magnetic fieldas long as the strength of the magnetic field applied, the velocity of the flowing blood, and the number of the ions in the blood are known.
Magnetic field strength is measured in one of two units: 1 Tesla = 104 Gauss. The magnetic field strength of a Norfield's MAGNETIChockwrapTM(for horses) measured at California Institute of Technology had a field strength of 270 Gauss at the level of the pad and 1 Gauss at a distance of 1 cm from the pad. Tissues purportedly affected by the pads lie at least 1 cm away from them; 1 Gauss is approximately the magnetic field strength of the earth.32 Promotional information for Bioflex pads asserts an "independent laboratory" has measured the field strength of their pads at 350 Gauss and that "optimum" field strength for the purported healing effects is less than 500 Gauss.33 Regardless, these are very weak magnetic fields.
Considering the applied magnetic field at 250 Gauss (0.025 Tesla) and the velocity of blood flow v as 1 cm/sec (0.01 m/sec), the electric field to which an ion in the blood is exposed can be calculated as:
E = v x B = 2.5 x 10-4 Volts/meter/sec
Hence, the change in electric potential (a psuedo-Hall effect) across a 1 mm diameter blood vessel can be estimated at a minuscule 2.5 x 10-7 Volts.
Ions of opposing charges will move in opposite directions when moving through a static magnetic field. The separation of charges, known as the drift velocity, can also be calculated. In the case of Na+ and Cl- ions in flowing blood under the influence of a 250 Gauss magnetic field, the increased separation of the positive sodium and the negative chloride ions will be about 0.2 Angstroms per second, or about 1/10 the diameter of an atom. This can be compared with the random drift distance in one second that results from the thermal agitation imparted by the heat of the horse's body of about 0.25 mm/sec. Stated in another fashion, the ions will travel farther from thermal agitation than from the 250 Gauss magneto-electrical field drift by a factor of about 10 million.34
Any magnetic forces generated by a static field affecting fluid movement in blood vessels would have to overcome both the normal, pressure-driven turbulent flow of blood propelled by the heart and the normal thermal-induced Brownian movement of the particles suspended in the blood. Given the strong physical forces that already exist in a blood vessel, any physical forces generated by a static magnetic field on flowing blood, particularly those as weak as those associated with therapeutic magnetic pads, are extremely unlikely to have a biological effect.
Magnetic Pad Design
At least one manufacturer of magnetic pads (Magnaflex/BioflexTM) asserts that the effect of charge separation can be increased by alternating north and south magnetic poles. Alternating magnetic poles are most commonly seen in refrigerator magnets. By alternating the magnetic poles, an increased magnetic gradient is created, which increases the ability of the magnets to stick to the refrigerator. Paradoxically, alternating poles decrease the magnetic field strength of the magnet because the fields tend to cancel each other out as they extend from the magnet. Thus, while alternating poles would exert opposite forces on ions flowing through the magnetic field, the decrease in magnetic field strength would lessen any potential influence of the magnetic field on the target ions. Nor does there appear to be any consensus in the industry as to the ideal design for the pads. In fact, a competing manufacturer asserts that, "Leading scientists agree that unipolar magnets are superior to bi-polar,"35 although neither the scientists nor the supporting research are identified.
Further proprietary design information regarding at least one commercial source of magnetic pads (BioflexTM pads) would also appear to be irrelevant regarding biologic effects. Promotional information for the pads indicates that the "concentric circle" arrangement of the pads increases the likelihood that the magnetic field would be applied perpendicular to flowing blood, thereby maximizing the Hall effects. In fact, because blood vessels run randomly throughout the three dimensions of any tissue, there can be no "preferred" arrangement of the magnetic field that would favor its perpendicular orientation to the flow of blood.
Studies on Static Magnetic Fields and Blood Flow
A number of studies have investigated the effects of static magnetic fields on blood flow. Studies commissioned by the makers of one type of magnetic pad showed that exposure of a highly concentrated saline solution in a glass capillary tube increased the flow of the solution. This study has been often cited by manufacturers of static magnetic devices as evidence that magnetic field therapy can potentially affect the circulation of blood. Although the mechanism for the increase in saline flow is not apparent, it certainly could not have been related to any dilatory effect on the walls of the glass capillary tube. The investigator who performed the study concluded that the results of the experiments performed using highly concentrated saline in a glass tube should not be extrapolated to effects that would be expected with flowing blood.36

A second study evaluated the effects of the pads in the distal limbs of horses using nuclear scintigraphy, a technique that is useful in identifying areas of blood vessel dilation and inflammation. That study concluded that, "Scintigraphy was performed in the vascular, soft tissue, and bone phase using a cross over trial to demonstrate increased blood flow and metabolic activity as a result of the local application of a permanent magnetic pad on the equine metacarpus. A highly significant increase was evident in the three phases."37 The results of this study have been used repeatedly to suggest that magnetic pads promote blood circulation to the areas under the pads.
This study, which is apparently the only one to state that a static magnetic field affects blood circulation, is open to criticism. The experimental model, which compared the results of scans on one "treated" limb vs. the non-treated limb is inherently inaccurate, as one forelimb cannot be used as a control for the other in scintigraphic studies (each limb should be used as its own control). Furthermore, the design of the study was flawed, as a bandage and magnetic pad were applied to one limb while a bandage only was applied to the other. A more appropriate control would have been a bandage and a demagnetized pad. The radioisotope chosen for the study was not appropriate to determine blood circulation accurately. Finally, the study measured absolute scintigraphic counts, when the use of relative perfusion ratios would have been more appropriate.38
Numerous other studies have failed to show any effect of magnetic fields on blood circulation. For instance, no effect of dental magnets on the circulation of blood in the cheek could be demonstrated.39 Scintigraphic evaluation of blood flow in mice exposed to two strengths of pulsating electromagnetic field force failed to demonstrate any circulatory effects.40 A study on the circulatory effects of a magnetic foil was unable to show any effect in the skin of human forearms41 and application of a magnetic foil to healing wounds in rats showed no significant effects.42 A study in horses showed that application of a magnetic pad over the tendon region for 24 hours showed no evidence of temperature increase in treated limbs vs. placebo controlled limbs, using thermographic measurements as an indirect assessment of blood circulation to the area.43
As a more practical matter, if a magnet caused local increases in circulation, one would expect the area under the magnet to feel warm or become red as a result. Such an effect is not reported when magnets are held in the hand. Furthermore, one would expect any circulatory effects produced by very weak magnetic fields to be magnified in stronger magnetic fields. However, no circulatory effects have ever been reported in magnetic resonance imaging machines, in which the magnetic forces generated are two to four orders of magnitude greater than those produced by therapeutic magnetic pads. In studies of humans exposed to magnetic fields up to 1 Tesla (10,000 Gauss) there was no evidence of alterations in local blood flow at the skin of the thumb or at the forearm.44 Even a 10 Tesla magnetic field is predicted to change the vascular pressure in a model of human vasculature by less than 0.2%, and experimental results of the effects of strong magnetic fields on concentrated saline solutions are in general agreement with these predictions.45
Based on the available scientific data, one must conclude that if there is an effect of static magnetic fields on blood circulation, there is no known biological mechanism by which that effect is generated. One may also postulate that the boots, blankets, and bandages in which the magnets are sewn have some sort of a thermal effect that is independent of the magnetic field (and could be duplicated with any form of bandaging).
Magnetic Fields and Pain Relief
Both static and pulsating electromagnetic field therapy have also been promoted as being beneficial for the relief of pain. As with other proposed effects, there is no known mechanism of action by which application of a magnetic field produces biological effects. If they are effective in the relief of pain, it is unlikely that the effect is related to a reduction in nerve conductivity; the field required to produce a 10% reduction in nerve conductivity is roughly 24 Tesla.46
Studies evaluating the effects of pulsating electromagnetic fields in the relief of pain have shown conflicting results. Pulsating electromagnetic field therapy has reportedly provided pain relief in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the human knee and cervical spine,47,48 in the treatment of persistent neck pain,49 and in the treatment of women with chronic refractory pelvic pain.50 However, electromagnetic therapy showed no benefit in the relief of pain due to shoulder arthritis51, and a 1994 summary of published trials of non-medicinal and noninvasive therapies for hip and knee osteoarthritis concluded that there were insufficient data available to draw any conclusions on the efficacy of the therapy.52 Paradoxically, another study in humans showed that magnetic treatment actually induced hyperalgesia in a tooth pain model.53
Pads that apply a static magnetic field are also promoted as having pain-relieving effects. Poorly controlled studies from the Japanese literature suggest that static magnetic devices were highly effective in alleviating subjective symptoms such as neck, shoulder, and other muscular pain.54,55 One controlled, double-blind pilot study suggested that magnetic pads were effective in the relief of myofascial or arthritic-like pain in postpolio syndrome,56 although every patient in the study, whether being treated with a placebo or a magnet, showed relief from pain. However, other studies have concluded that a magnetic foil offered no advantage over plain insoles in the treatment of pain of the human heel57 and that a magnetic necklace had no effect on neck and shoulder pain.58 It has also been suggested that there is a strong placebo effect at work in the perception of pain relief offered by static Magnetic devices.59
Clinical Use of Magnetic Fields in Veterinary Medicine
Magnetic and electromagnetic devices appear not to be used on small animals. However, the devices are widely advertised in magazines targeted at horse owners. Pulsating electromagnetic field therapy is typically applied to horses with boots or blankets. Some of the variables of the magnetic field generated (such as the amplitude and frequency of the signal) can be controlled using this form of magnetic therapy. However, changes in these variables appear to affect different tissues in different ways, and those ways are not well defined, making selection of ideal field strength of the therapy problematic.
The other way to apply a magnetic field to a horse is by attaching a magnetic pad. This form of therapy generates a continuous, static magnetic influence on the targeted tissue; however, the magnetic field cannot be modulated. The principle advantage of this form of magnetic therapy is that it is relatively inexpensive (compared to the cost of the machines) and easy to apply; the disadvantage is that as yet there is no scientific evidence of an effect.
The absence of a plausible scientific theory for a mechanism of action should never override reliable strong clinical evidence of an effect. For example, the mechanism of aspirin was not known for many years, although the drug was clinically effective. However, there appear to be no published scientific studies available that demonstrate that any form of magnetic field therapy is valuable in the treatment of disease conditions of the horse.
Daily electromagnetic therapy did increase the concentration of blood vessels in surgically created defects of equine superficial digital flexor tendon, but the maturation of the repair tissue and the transformation of collagen type (two essential components in the healing process of tendon) actually were delayed by the treatment in tendon samples collected at 8 to 12 weeks after surgery.60 No benefit could be demonstrated in the healing of freshly created bone injuries treated with pulsating electromagnetic field therapy when compared to untreated control limbs, 61 although another study did suggest an increase in bone activity under pulsating electromagnetic field treatment when holes were drilled in horse cannon bones.62 Topical treatment with a pulsed electromagnetic field showed little effect on metabolism of normal horse bone in another study.63 Unfortunately, the principle application of pulsating electromagnetic field therapy in people, for delayed and non-union fractures, is of little apparent use in horses.
Where does callanetics come from ?
American born Callan Pinckney developed the original programme a few decades ago after training with Lotte Berk (now in her mid 80s). Lotte Berk was a famous dancer and after a severe back injury devised an exercise programme that kept her and thousands of others fit, supple and strong into old age.

Callan Pinckney was born with scoliosis and during 10 years of backpacking throughout the world developed further back and knee damage. When she found the programme to be an incredible success on herself, she started teaching other people. She has taught thousands of people since then, all with great results. Over the years Callanetics has been further developed and refined, and after careful research more and more variations to the original programme are introduced on a continuous basis.
Is callanetics safe ?
It is so safe that even eighty year olds can do these exercises.Originally developed for bad backs, Callanetics uses small, delicate movements consistently applied. Muscle groups are isolated and worked at whilst the rest of the body is completely relaxed. There is no sudden jerking or any hard impact, which can cause harm to the body.

Is dieting part of the callanetics programme ?
When doing Callanetics regularly, a person can wear clothing two sizes smaller without shedding a kilo. Dieting is, therefore, not part of the programme. However, if you lose 5 kg, it will look as if you had lost 10 kg.

Is callanetics easy ?
The exercises are hard work - at first. But they make you feel spectacular! And one hour of Callanetics is equal to 24 hours of aerobic dancing in terms of tightening, pulling up, and visible results.

Do you always have to do a whole hour of the exercises in one session ?
If you do the exercises at home, the answer is no. You can break an hour of exercises into 15 minute segments with the same dramatic results.

Will it really work ?
Within a few hours of Callanetics workouts you will have the answer.

What are the benefits of callanetics ?
Exercise, in general, promises strength, endurance and flexibility. The Callanetics programme has nine additional benefits, ie:

 comprehensive body awareness
 body control
 physical and mental relaxation
 builds stamina
 decreases appetite