Showing posts with label Indian history. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Indian history. Show all posts

Monday, April 25, 2011

History Of Indian Emperor (King) Harshavardhan

Harshavardhana was an Indian Emperor, who ruled over the northern parts of India for a period of more than forty years. His empire was spread over the states of Punjab, Bengal, Orissa and the entire Indo-Gangetic plain, lying to the north of the Narmada River. Get more information of the life history of King Harsha Vardhan with this biography:

King Harshavardhana was born in 590 BC to Prabhakar Vardhan. His elder brother was Rajyavardhan, the king of Thanesar. He was instrumental in consolidating the small republics and small monarchical states that had sprung up in North India after the downfall of the Gupta dynasty. Harsha Vardhan united the small republics from Punjab to Central India and they accepted him as their king in 606 AD. Though Harsha was only sixteen years old when he ascended the throne, he proved himself to be a great vanquisher as well as a competent administrator.

After his accession, King Harshavardhan united the two kingdoms of Thanesar (now Kurukshetra) and Kannauj. He also shifted his capital from Thanesar to Kannauj. The next aggression faced by the king was from Sasanka, the ruler of Bengal. He defeated Sasanka and also took over Eastern Punjab (present day Haryana), Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Thereafter, he occupied Dhruvasena and Ganjam, a part of the modern Orissa State. In 630 BC, Harshavardhana faced defeat at the hands of Pulakesi II, the Chalukya King of Vatapi, in Northern Karnataka. The defeat resulted in a truce between the two kings, with Harsha accepting River Narmada as the southern boundary for his kingdom.

Patronizing Buddhism and Literature
King Harshavardhan was a Shaivite. However, he was tolerant towards all other religions and supported them fully. Some time later in his life, he became a patron of Buddhism also. King Harshavardhana propagated the religion by constructing numerous stupas in the name of Buddha. He believed in supporting art and literature and even made several donations to the Nalanda University. Harsha Vardhana also wrote three Sanskrit plays, namely Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarsika. In 641 BC, he sent a mission to China, which helped in establishing the first diplomatic relations between China and India.

Death of Harsha
King Harshavardhana left for the holy abode in the year 647 AD, after ruling over the Indian subcontinent for more than 41 years. However, since he did not have any heirs, his empire rapidly disintegrated and collapsed into small states again.

Thursday, April 21, 2011

Who is Benito Mussolini ?

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was an Italian who embraced the Fascist dictator.

He was the dictator of Italy in the period 1922-1943. He was forced to resign from his position as Prime Minister of Italy on July 28, 1943 after a series defeat of Italy in Africa. After his arrest, he was isolated. Two years later, he was executed in Como, northern Italy. Mussolini end to a decade as the German dictator Adolf Hitler committed by his Nazi.Early LifeMussolini was born in Predappio, Forlì (Emilia-Romagna). His father was a blacksmith Alessandro Rosa and her mother a schoolteacher. Like his father, he became a heavy socialist. In 1902 he emigrated to Switzerland. Because it is difficult to find a permanent job, he eventually moved to Italy. In 1908 he joined the newspaper in the Austrian town of Trento.Get out of there, he became editor of a socialist newspaper in la Lotta Class (Class Conflict). Here his enthusiasm at the Karl Heinrich Marx bigger. In 1910, he was the secretary of the socialist party in Forlì regional level and develop into antipatriot personality. When Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire in 1911, he was jailed for peace propaganda. This is in contrast to its performance later.Once appointed to be editor of the socialist newspaper Avanti, he moved to Milan, where he was establishing itself as an influential force on the Italian socialist labor leader. He believed, the proletariat can dibuhul in fascio movement. Presumably this is the embryo of a fascist movement, who was born in Italy when the economy soured by the war, and unemployment are rampant everywhere.In March 1919, fascism became a political movement when he formed the Group for the Fight, known as black clothes, which is a collection of thugs, criminals, and thugs who act as bouncers bosses. Their performance was spooky and every day getting into fights in the streets.After failing in Election 1919, he developed an understanding of the group, so start getting the effect. They, the fascists, rejected the parliament and promoting physical violence. Anarchy broke out everywhere. Liberal government powerless to deal. He brought a “gang” her, a large number of the fascists are looking grim, to do Line up to Rome.Seeing a group of thugs entered the haunted faces of Rome, King Victor Emmanuel III shrink afraid. Mussolini was invited to the palace and given the position of the Leader. In October 1922, the King asked him to form a new government. Be Italy’s fascist government managed.His first breakthrough after taking office, was attacked Ethiopia with reference to the racist views of Charles Robert Darwin, “Ethiopia’s low class people, because it included blacks. If ordered by a superior race like the Italians, it was a natural result of evolution. “Indeed, he insists that nations evolve through battle. So be Italian then the dreaded nation.
What is troubling, when he occupied the Abbesinia in 1937, the world gasped in cash. Best friends in Europe was Adolf Hitler, and they make alliances, who dragged Italy into World War II on the side of Germany in 1940. However, his army was defeated in Greece and Africa, and Italy itself was invaded by forces of the United Kingdom and the United States in 1943. At that time Mussolini had descended from his throne and detained. German paratroopers freed and returned to power in Northern Italy. End of history arrived shortly afterwards. When Italy finally defeated, he was shot by enemy Italian and his body hung upside down in the Piazza Loreto in Milan.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Indian History : After Independence

Indian History : After Independence

Mahatma Gandhi assassinated.

Indian Constitution adopted.

India goes Republic; Death of Sardar Patel.

First Five-Year Plan launched.

Independent India's First General Elections to the Lok Sabha.

Conquest of Mt. Everest by Ten Zing and Edmund Hillary.

States Reorganisation Act.

Second General Elections to the Lok Sabha.

Goa, Daman and Diu liberated from the possession of Portuguese.

China's attack on India; Third General Election.

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru died; Lal Bahadur Shastri took over as the new Prime Minister.

Indo-Pak War; Ceasefire.

Tashkent Pact; Death of Lal Bahadur Shastri; Mrs. Indira Gandhi took over as the new P.M.; Punjab divided; Formation of Haryana

Fourth General Elections.

Emergency lifted.

Death of President Zakir Husain, V. V. Giri elected as new President; Split in Congress; Nationalisation of 14 Banks.

Fourth Lok Sabha dissolved; First atomic power station launched
at Tarapur.

General Elections; Statehood to Himachal Pradesh; Indo-Pak War, Birth of Bangladesh.

New States of Meghalaya, Tripura and Manipur; Assam state reorganised; Shimla Agreement; Death of C. Rajgopalachari.

Nationalisation of Coal Mines; Mysore state renamed Karnataka.

Nuclear explosion by India making her the sixth nuclear power in the World; Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed took over as the fifth President; Sikkim granted associate statehood to India.

Sikkim becomes the 22nd state of India; India enters space age with the launching of Aryabhatta; Dr. Radhakrishnan dies; First Internal Emergency in independent India.

Diplomatic relations with China & Pakistan restored; Lok Sabha extended for another year; 42nd Constitution Amendement Bill passed.

Lok Sabha Elections; President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed died; Combination of four opposition parties named as Janata Party gets absolute majority; Mr. Morarji Desai became P. M.; Emergency lifted; N. Sanjiva Reddy elected President.

India's Second satellite Bhaskara goes into orbit; Resignation of Mr. Morarji Desai as P. M.; Mr. Charan Singh sworn in as the new P.M.; Lok Sabha dissolved and mid-term poll announced; Death of  Loknayak Jay Prakash Narayan.

General Elections to the Lok Sabha; Mrs. Gandhi returns to Power; Formation of Bharatiya Janata Party; Six more commercial banks nationalised, Launching of first satellite into orbit, Sanjay Gandhi died in air crash.

India's first geostationary experimental communication satellite, APPLE, launched, Bhaskara II launched.

46th Amendement Bill passed by Lok Sabha, Agreement for Supply of Mirage 2000.

Rakesh Sharma is became India's first spaceman, Phu Dorjee becomes the first Indian to scale Mt. Everest without oxygen; Bachendri Pal becomes the first Indian woman to scale Mt. Everest; Operation Bluestar in Punjab to flush out extremists and terrorists from the Golden Temple and from Gurudwaras; Mrs. Indira Gandhi assassinated by her own security guards, Rajiv Gandhi takes over as the new P.M., More than 2,000 persons die due to the gas leakages in the Union Carbide factory in Bhopal, Eighth General Elections and Congress (I) gets massive majority.

Lok Sabha passes Anti-defection Bill.                                   

India's first test tube baby `Indira' is born at Bombay.

Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh declared 23rd and 24th state of India,. Mr. R. Venkataraman sworn in as 8th President of India.

Six opposition parties and Jan Morcha launch National Front. A new opposition party, the Janata Dal is launched Bangalore with V.P. Singh as its Chairman.

The Supreme Court of India settles compensation for the Bhopal Gas tragedy victims at 470 million dollars. For the first time in the history of Parliament 73 M.Ps. resigned enmass.

Upper age limit for the Civil Services Examination enhanced. The Union Government decided to implement the Mandal Commission report. 27 percent jobs to be reserved for Backward Classes.

India allows U.S. military planes to refuel in country. Rajiv Gandhi assassinated at Sriperumbdur, 45 km. from Chennai.

Woman commission constituted, Narsimha Rao wins confidence vote, Agreement on Tin Bigha, Babri Masjid demolished, Communal riots envelope the country.

Russian President Boris Yeltsin visits India, Bodoland problem solved, Human Rights Commission set up.

India successfully launches ASLV-D4. Surat declared pleague hit. First heart transplantation in the country.

SAARC Summit in New Delhi. Punjab C.M. Beant Singh assassinated.

India-Bangladesh sign Ganga Water Pact.

U.F. Govt. led by H.D. Deve Gowda resigns. India celebrates 50th year of its independence. Lok Sabha dissolved.

1998Death sentence for 26 persons in Rajiv Gandhi assassination case.

Operation Vijay makes a headway in Kargil.                         

India US Joint working group on counter terrorism. TRAI ordinance promulgated.

Summit in Agra with Pakistan, GSLV placed a satellite in a Geosynchronous Transfer orbit, Launching of PSLV-C3, Attack on the Parliament house, Missile Nag successfully test fired, Year of Census; collect data of one billion plus population.

POTA passed in joint session. Missile man Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam elected as 12th President of India, India's first full-fledged meterological satellite METSET was successfully launched from Sriharikota.

India and Pakistan exchange lists of nuclear installations, Canada, Australia, Singapore, New Zealand and EU Countries, Iranian President Moh. Khatami was the Chief Guest at India's 54th Republic Day Celebration, Brahmos, the supersonic, antiship cruise missile successfully test fired. RESOURCESAT-I sucessfully launched, India-Thailand signed five agreement. Bodo, Santhali, Maithili & Dogri languages included in the 8th Schedule.

Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee attended the 12th SAARC Summit in Islamabad. President of Brazil was the Chief guest at India's 55th Republic day. The Election Commission announces Lok Sabha election. NDA loses Lok Sabha elections. President appoints Dr. Man Mohan Singh new Prime Minister of India. Major Rajyvardhan Singh wins silver medel in olympic double trap event. India's first educational satellite EDUSAT launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota. Vilas Rao Deshmukh sworn in C.M. of Maharashtra.

The Union Cabinet approves the National Rural Health Mission, Noted film-maker, The Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, launches the National Legal Literacy Mission, in New Delhi, Punit Arora takes over as the first woman Vice-Admiral in the Navy, The Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, launches the National Knowledge Commission, Justice Y.K. Sabharwal is sworn in Chief Justice of India, Uma Bharati is expelled from the BJP for `indiscipline', Raj Thackeray quits the Shiv Sena, Lal Krishna Advani resigns as BJP president.

India-Pakistan exchange lists of nuclear facilities, 93rd congress held in Hyderabad, Lahore-Amritsar Bus Service begins, President
or APJ Abdul Kalam assent the constitution amendment bill providing reservation for the socially and educationally backward classes. VAT implemented in 27 states. Domestic Violence Act, 2005 comes into effect. Ban on child labour under the provisions of child labour Act, 1986. Sachar Committee submitted report on Muslims. Prithvi Interceptor Missile tested successfully. India-US Nuke deal approved by the US Congress.

INSAT-4B is successfully launched by Ariane-5 launcher from the spaceport of Kourou in French Guyana. Sara Jane selected new Miss India-world, 2007. PSLV-C8 Launched Italian Satellite in space. Mayawati sworn in as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. Ms. Pratibha Devisingh Patil was sworn in as the first woman President of India. Mohammad Hamid Ansari was sworn in as the Vice-President of India. Ace Shooter Manavjit Singh Sandhu has been awarded the prestigious Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award, 2006. Lt. Gen. Deepak Kapoor has been appointed as the chief of Army Staff. President rule in Karnataka.

Indian History At a Glance

Indian History At a Glance

Indus Valley Civilisation.

Birth of Mahavir—Founder of Jainism.

Birth of Gautam Buddha—Founder of Buddhism.

Buddha attains Nirvana.

Mahavir attains Nirvana.

Alexander's invasion of India.

Chandragupta Maurya's accession to the throne of Magadha.

Defeat of Seleucus at the hands of Chandragupta Maurya.

Ashoka's regime

Conquest of Kalinga.

Beginning of Vikram Era.
Beginning of Saka Era.

Accession of Kanishka.

Beginning of Gupta Dynasty.

Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien visited India.

Harsha Vardhan's regime.

Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited India.

Mohammad-bin-Qasim's invasion of Sindh.

Mahmud Gazhni's first attack on India.

Mahmud Gazhni destroyed Somnath Temple.

First Battle of Tarain.

Second Battle of Tarain.

Foundation of first Muslim Dynasty in India by Qutub-ud-din Aibak.

First Mongol invasion of India by Changez Khan

Accession of Razia Sultan to the throne of Delhi.

Taimur Lang invaded India.

Birth of Guru Nanak—Founder of Sikhism.

Discovery of sea-route of India by Vasco-de-Gama, Portuguese

First Battle of Panipat, Ibrahim Lodi defeated by Babar, foundation of Mughal rule in India.

Second Battle of Panipat, Hemu defeated by Akbar and latter's
accession to the throne.

Battle of Haldighati, Rana Pratap was defeated by Akbar.   

Establishment of East India Company.

Death of Akbar.

First English factory at Surat.

Birth of Shivaji—Founder of Maratha Power.

Taj Mahal completed at Agra.

Shivaji's visit to the Mughal Court at Agra, his imprisonment and dramatic escape.

Death of Shivaji.

Death of Aurangzeb.

Nadir Shah of Persia invaded India.

Battle of Plassey.

Third Battle of Panipat.

Battle of Buxar.

Regulating Act.

Birth of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Pitt's India Bill.

Permanent settlement of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

Macaulay recommended English as the medium of instruction in India.

Death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

First railway line opened in India from Bombay to Thana.

First Battle of Indian Independence.

End of East India Company's rule; administration of India transferred to the British Crown.

Indian Councils Act; Rabindranath Tagore born.

Birth of Swami Vivekanand.

Birth of Mahatma Gandhi.

Indian National Congress founded by A.O. Hume.                

Birth of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

First Partition of Bengal.

All India Muslim League founded.

Morely-Minto Reforms Bills passed.

Partition of Bengal revoked; India's Capital transferred from Calcutta to Delhi.

1919Government of India Act Passed; Jallianwala Bagh massacre at Amritsar.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak died; Non-Co-operation Movement started
by Mahatma Gandhi-Khilafat Movement started by Ali Brothers.

Chauri Chaura outrage in U.P.

Visit of Simon Commission.

Death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

Under the Presidentship of Pt. Nehru at Lahore session of Congress, a resolution for complete independence passed.

Mahatma Gandhi takes up Dandi March; First Round Table Conference in London.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact; Second Round Table Conference.

Communal Award announced; Gandhiji declares fast unto death
against the award.

Government of India Act passed.

Provincial Autonomy.

Death of Rabindranath Tagore; escape of Subhash Chandra
Bose from India.

Quit India Movement.

Bengal famine; Indian National Army formed at Singapore by Subhash Chandra Bose.

Trial of I.N.A. at Red Fort; Shimla Conference.

Visit of Cabinet Mission to India; Formation of Interim Government at the Centre.

India attains independence; Partition of India & creation of Pakistan.

Indian National Movement

Indian National Movement

The East India Company had established its control over almost all parts of India by the middle of the 19th century. There were numerous risings in the first hundred years of British rule in India. They were, however, local and isolated in character. Some of them were led by the nobility who were refusing to accept the changing patterns of the time and wanted the past to be restored. But the risings developed a tradition of resistance offoreign rule, culminating in the 1857 revolt. 
The Revolt of 1857, which was called a Sepoy Mutiny by British historians and their imitators in India but described as "the First War of Indian Independence" by many Indian historians, shook the British authority in India from its very foundations.
The Revolt of 1857, an unsuccessful but heroic effort to eliminate foreign rule, had begun. The capture of Delhi and the proclamation of Bahadurshah as the Emperor of Hindustan are a positive meaning to the Revolt and provided a rallying point for the rebels by recalling the past glory of the imperial city.
On May 10, 1857, soldiers at Meerut refused to touch the new Enfield rifle cartridges. The soldiers along with other group of civilians, went on a rampage shouting 'Maro Firangi Ko'. They broke open jails, murdered European men and women, burnt their houses and marched to Delhi. The appearance of the marching soldiers next morning in Delhi was a'signal to the local soldiers, who in turn revolted, seized the city and proclaimed the 80-year old Bahadurshah Zafar, as Emperor of India.
 Within a month of the capture of Delhi, the Revolt spread to the different parts of the country. Kanpur, Lucknow, Benaras,  Allahabad, Bareilly, Jagdishpur and Jhansi. In the absence of any leader from their own ranks, the insurgents turned to the traditional leaders of Indian society. At Kanpur, NanaSaheb, the adopted son of last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, led the forces. Rani Lakshmi Bai in Jhansi, Begum Hazrat Mahal in Lucknow and .Khan Bahadur in Bareilly were in command. However, apart from a commonly shared hatred for alien rule, the rebels had no political perspective or a definite vision of the future. They were all prisoners of their own past, fighting primarily to regain their lost privileges. Unsurprisingly, they proved incapable of ushering in a new political order. 
Government of India Act 1858
Queen Victoria issued a proclamation on November 1, 1858, placing India under direct government of the Crown, whereby:
(a) A viceroy was appointed in India
(b) Princes were given the right to adopt a son (abolition of Doctrine of Lapse)
(c) Treaties were honoured
(d) Religious freedom was restored and equality treatment promised to Indians
 The Proclamation was called the 'Magna Carta of Indian Liberty'. The British rule in India was strongest between 1858 and 1905. The British also started treating India as its most precious possession and their rule over India seemed set to continue for centuries to come. Because of various subjective and objective factors which came into existence during this era, the feeling of nationalism in Indians started and grow.
Indian National Congress (1885)
Although the British succeeded in suppressing the 1857 Revolt, they could not stop the growth of political awareness in India. The Indian National Congress was founded in December 1885. It was the visible embodiment of the national awakening in the country. Its founder was an Englishman, Allan Octavian Hume, a retired member of the Indian Civil Service. The Indian leaders, who cooperated with Hume in launching the Congress, were patriots of high character. The first President of the Congress was W.C. Bannerjee. 
The aims of the Congress were: promotion of friendship and cooperation amongst the nationalist political workers from the different parts of the country; the eradication of racial, creed or provincial prejudices and promotion of national unity; formulation of popular demands and their presentation before the Government; and, most important of all, the training and organisation of public opinion in the country.
Partition of Bengal (1905)
On December 30, 1898, Lord Curzon took over as the new Viceroy of India. The partition of Bengal came into effect on October 16, 1905, through a Royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating a new province of East Bengal, which later on became East Pakistan and present day Bangladesh. The government explained that it was done to stimu­late growth of underdeveloped eastern region of the Bengal. But, actually, the main objective was to 'Divide and Rule' the most advanced region of the country at that time.

Muslim League (1906)
In 1906, All India Muslim League was set up under the leader­ship of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimul­lab of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. The League supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi Movement, and demanded special safegurds for its community and a separate elec­torates of Muslims. This led to communal differences between Hindus and Muslims.

Swadeshi Movement (1905)
The Swadeshi movement has its genesis in the anti-partition move­ment which was started to oppose the British decision to divide Bengal. With the start of the Swadeshi movement at the turn of the century, the Indian National Movement took a major leap forward.
The Indian National Congress took up the Swadeshi call in Benaras Session, 1905, presided over by G.K. Gokhale, supported the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement of Bengal, Militant Nationalism spearheaded by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, and Aurobindo Ghosh was, however, in favour of extending the movement of the rest of India and carrying it beyond the programme of just Swadeshi and boycott of goods to full-fledged political mass struggle.
Morley-Minto Reforms (1909)
Morley-Minto Reforms were introduced in 1909 during the period when Lord Minto was the Governor­General of India. The reforms envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims besides other constitutional measures. The government thereby sought to create a rift within the Congress on the one hand by winning the support of the moderates,
and on the other, to win favour of Muslims against Bindus. To achieve the latter objective, the reforms introduced the system of separate electorates under which Muslims could only vote for Muslim candidates. This was done to encourage the notion that the political, economic and cultural interests of Hindus and Muslims were separate and not common. Indian political leaders were however dissatisfied by these reforms.
Lucknow Pact (1916)
An important step forward in achieving Hindu-Muslim unity was the Lucknow Pact 1916. Anti­British feelings were generated among the Muslims following a war between Britain and Turkey which opened way for Congress and Mus­lim League unity. Both the Con­gress and the Muslim League held sessions at Lucknow in 1916 and concluded the famous Lucknow Pact. The Congress accepted the separate electorates, and both organizations jointly demanded dominion status for the country.
 Hindu-Muslim unity weakened the British attitude and forced the government to announce its future policy. In 1916 a British policy was announced whereby association of Indians was increased and there was to be a gradual development of local self-governing institutions.
Home Rule Movement (1915­1916)
Dr. Annie Besant, inspired by the Irish rebellion, started a Home Rule Movement in India in September 1916. The movement spread rapidly and branches of the Rome Rule League were established all over India. Bal Gangadhar Tilak wholeheartedly supported this movement. Rejoined forces with Dr. Besant and persuaded the Muslim League to support this programme.

The Gandhian Era (1918-1947)
Mahatma Gandhi dominated the Indian political scene from 1918­1947. This period of the Indian National Congress is also referred to as the Gandhian Era. It was the most
intense and eventful phase of India's freedom struggle. Mahatma Gandhi provided the leadership of the highest order and his philosophy of non-violent Satyagraha became the most potent weapon to drive out .the British from the Indian soil.
Khilafat Movement (1920)
The Caliph, Sultan of Turkey, was looked upon by the Muslims as their religious head. During the First World War, when the safety and the welfare of Turkey were threatened by the British thereby weakening the Caliph's position, Indian Muslims adopted an aggressive anti-British attitude. The two brothers, Mohammed Ah and Shaukat Ali launched an anti­British movement in 1920-the Khilafat Movement for the restoration.

The Rowlatt Act (1919)
While trying to appease Indians, the British Government was following a policy of repression. Throughout the First World War, repression of freedom fighters had continued. The revolutionaries had been hunted down, hanged or im­prisoned. The Government now decided to arm itself with more powers in order to suppress the freedom fighters. In March 1919, it passed the Rowlatt Act. This Act authorised the government to detain any person without trial. The Rowlatt Act came like a sudden blow. The Indians had been promised extension of democracy during the war. They felt humiliated and were filled with anger when they found that their civil liberties were going to be curtailed still further. Unrest gripped the country and a powerful agitation against the Act started. During this agitation, Gandhiji took command of the nationalist movement. March and April 1919 witnessed a remarkable political awakening in the country. There were hartals, strikes and demonstrations at various places. The slogans of Hindu-Muslim unity filled the air.

Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre (1919)
The Government was bent on suppressing the mass agitation. In Bombay; Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Delhi and at other places demonstrators were lathi-charged and fired upon. Gandhiji gave a call for a general hartal on April 6, 1919. The call was responded to with great enthusiasm. The Government decided to resort to repression to suppress the agitation. At this time the British Government committed one of the worst political crimes in modem history. An unarmed but a large crowd had gathered in Jallianwalla Bagh, Amritsar (Punjab) on April, 13, 1919 for a meeting. General Dyer ordered his troops to open fire on them without warning. This massacre of unarmed people (hundreds died and thousands were wounded) in an enclosed place from which there was no exit, was fol­lowed by a reign of terror in several districts under martial law.

Non-Cooperation Movement (1920)
With the Congress support of the Khilafat movement, Hindu-Muslim unity was achieved which encouraged Gandhiji to launch his non-violent, non-cooperation movement. At the Calcutta Session in September 1920, the Congress resolved in favour of the non-violent, non-cooperation movement and defined Swaraj as its ultimate aim. The movement envisaged: (i) Surrender of titles and honorary officers; (ii) Resignation from nominated offices and posts in the local bodies; (iii) Refusal to attend government darbars and official functions and boycott of British courts by the lawyers; (iv) Refusal of general public to offer themselves for military and other government jobs, and boycott of foreign goods, etc.
 The non-cooperation movement also saw picketing of shops selling foreign cloth and boycott of the foreign cloth by the followers of Gandhiji.
Chauri Chaura Incident (1922)
The Congress session held at Ahmedabad in December 1921 decided to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement while reiterating its stand on the non-violent, non­cooperation movement of which Gandhiji was appointed the leader. Before Gandhiji could launch the Civil Disobedience Movement, a mob of countrymen at Chauri Chaura, a place near Gorakhpur in D.P., clashed with the police which opened fire. In retaliation the mob burnt the police-station and killed 22 policemen. This compelled Gandhiji to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement on February 12, 1922.
 Despite this Gandhiji was arrested and sentenced to six years imprisonment. The Chauri Chaura incident convinced Gandhiji that the nation was not yet ready for the mass-dis6bedience and he prevailed upon Congress Working Committee in Bardoli on February 12, 1922 to call off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Swaraj Party (1922)
Gandhiji's decision to call off the agitation caused frustration among masses. His decision came in for severe criticism from his colleagues like Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das and N.C. Kelkar, who organized the Swaraj Party. The foundations of the 'Swaraj Party' were laid on January 1, 1923, as the 'Congress­Khilafat-Swarajya Patty'. It proposed then an alternative programme of diverting the movement from widespread civil disobedience programme to restrictive one which would encourage its member to enter into legislative councils (established under Montford Reforms of 1919) by contesting elections in order to wreck the legislature from within and to use moral pressure to compel the authority to concede to the popular demand for self-government.

Simon Commission (1927)
Under the 1919 Act, a statutory commission was to be appointed by the British Government at the end of ten years from the passing of the Act to inquire into the working of the system of government in the country and to recommend further reforms. Thus the commission was scheduled to be appointed in 1929. It was ac­tually appointed two years earlier in 1927. The commission consisted of seven members of the British Parliament. It was headed by Sir John Simon. As all its members were British, the Congress decided to boycott it. The Commission arrived in India in Feb. 1928. It was greeted with black flags and hostile demonstrations everywhere it went. In one such demonstration at Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in a wanton police lathi-charge on the demonstrators. Lalaji died soon after from wounds received during the demonstration.

Dandi March (1930)
Also called the 'Salt Satyagraha'. To achieve the goal of complete independence, Gandhiji launched another civil disobedience movement. Along with 79 followers, Gandhiji started his famous march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 20,1930, for the small village Dandi to break the Salt Law. While Gandhiji was marching to Dandi,
Congress leaders and workers had been busy at various levels with the hard organizational tasks of enrolling volunteers and members, forming grassroot Congress Committees, collecting funds, and touring villages and towns to spread nationalist messages.
 On reaching the seashore on April 6, 1930, he broke the Salt Law by picking up salt from the seashore. By picking a handful of salt, Gandhiji inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement, a movement that was to remain unsurpassed in the history of the Indian National Movement for the countrywide mass participation it unleashed. The movement became so powerful that it sparked off partriotism even among the Indian soldiers in the Army. The Garhwal soldiers refused to fire on the people at Peshawar.
Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931)
Early in 1931 two moderate statesmen, Sapru and Jayakar, initiated efforts to bring about rapprochement between Gandhiji and the government. Six meetings with Viceroy Lord Irwin finally led to the signing of a pact between the two on March 5, 1931, whereby the Congress called off the movement and agreed to join the Second Round Table Conference. The terms of the agreement included the immediate release of all political prisoners not convicted for violence, the remission of all fines not yet collected, the return of confiscated land not yet sold to third parties, and lenient treatment of all the government officials who had resigned.
 Gandhiji and other leaders were released from jail as Irwin agreed to release most political prisoners and to return the properties that had been seized by the governments. The government also conceded the right to make the salt for consumption of villages along the coast, and also the right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing. The Congress on its part, agreed to discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement and to participate in the next Round Table Conference.
The Government of India Act, 1935
The Simon Commission report submitted in 1930 formed the basis for the Government of India Act 1935. The new Government of India Act received the royal assent on August 4, 1935.
 The Act continued and extended all the existing features of the Indian constitution. Popular representation, which went back to 1892, dyarchy and ministerial responsibility, which dated from 1921, provincial autonomy, whose chequered history went back to eighteenth century presidencies, communal representation, which first received recognition in 1909, and the safeguards devised in 1919, were all continued and in most cases extended. But in addition there were certain new principles intro­duced. It provided for a federal type of government. Thus, the act:
(a) Introduced provincial autonomy
(b) Abolished dyarchy in provinces I
(c) Made ministers responsible to the legislative and federation at the centre
 The Act of 1935 was condemned by nearly all sections of Indian public opinion and was unanimously rejected by the Congress. The Congress demanded instead, the convening of a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise to frame a constitution for an independent India.
Quit India Movement (1942)
On August 8, 1942, the Congress in its meeting at Bombay passed a resolution known as 'Quit India' resolution, whereby Gandhiji asked the British to quit India and gave a call for 'Do or die' to his countrymen. On August 9, 1942, Gandhiji was arrested but the other leaders continued the revolutionary struggle. Violence spread throughout the country, several government officers were destroyed and damaged, telegraph wires were cut and communication paralyzed. The movement was, however, crushed by the government.
Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)
The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year 1945-46. The British Prime Minister, Lord Attlee, made a declaration on March 15, 1946, that British Cabinet Mission would visit India to make recommendations regarding constitutional reforms to be introduced in India. The Cabinet Mission which constituted of Lord Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander visited India and met the representatives of different political parties but a satisfactory solution to the constitutional difficulties could not be found. The Mission envisaged the establishment of a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution as well as an interim government. The Muslim League accepted the plan on June 6, 1946, while maintaining its rights of striving for a separate Muslim state. The Congress also partially accepted the plan.
Interim Government (1946)
On September 2, 1946, an inter­im government was formed. Congress members led by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru joined it but the Muslim League did not as it withdrew its earlier acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Formation of Constituent Assembly (1946)
The Constituent Assembly met on December 9, 1946, and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected its President. The Muslim League did not join the Assembly.

Mountbatten Plan (1947)
In March 1947, Lord Mountbatten replaced Lord Wavell. He announced his plan on June 3, 1947. It offered a key to the political and constitutional deadlock created by the refusal of the Muslim League to join the Constituent Assembly formed to frame the Constitution of India. Mountbatten's formula was to divide India but retain maximum unity. The country would be partitioned but so would be Punjab and Bengal, so that the limited Pakistan that emerged would meet both the Congress and the League's position to some extent. The League's position on Pakistan was conceded in that it would be created, but the Congress position on unity would be taken into account to make Pakistan as small as possible. He laid down detailed principles for the partition of the country and speedy transfer of political powers in the form of dominion status to the newly formed dominions of India and Pakistan. Its acceptance by the Congress and the Muslim' League resulted in the birth of Pakistan.

 The Indian Independence Act, 1947
The Bill containing the provisions of the Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947, was introduced in the British Parliament and passed as the Indian Independence Act,
1947. The Act laid down detailed measures for the partition of India and speedy transfer of political powers to the new government of India and Pakistan.
 Partition of India (1947)
In accordance with the Indian Independence Act, 1947, India was partitioned on August 15, 1947 into India and Pakistan. The Act made India and Pakistan independent dominions. Bloodshed and violence marked the exodus of refugees. The state of Kashmir acceded to the Indian Union, after the raiders were helped by Pakistan, in October 1947. Lord Mountbatten was appointed the Governor-General of free1ndia and M.A. Jinnah the first Governor-General of Pakistan.

Prominent Figures of the Indian Freedom Movement

Prominent Figures of the Indian Freedom Movement

Allan Octavian Hume (1829-1912)
A retired English member of the Indian Civil Services who sympathised with the Indian cause and propagated the ideals of the Congress in Britain. He founded the Indian National Congress in 1885 and was its first General Secretary.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920)
An aggressive freedom fighter popularly known as 'The Father of Indian Unrest'. His political career began in 1896 during the famine in the Deccan. His followers along with him preached the relevant sections of the Famine Relief Code and motivated the people to be bold and fearless in demanding their rights. He was first Indian leader to give the slogan "Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it". He is the author of Gita-Rahasaya through which he taught the people to fight against oppression and unrighteousness. He started two well-known newspapers: Kesari(Marathi) and Maratha (English) to rouse national sentiments. The three leaders: Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal are known in the history of Indian freedom movement as 'Lal, Bal, Pal'.

Bipin Chandra Pal (1858-1932)
One of the extremist leaders of the freedom struggle and an ardent supporter of the boycott of foreign goods, the Swadeshi movement and national education. He did not believe in Dominion Status and wanted full-fledged independence. Achieved national stature after partition of Bengal. In the 1907 Surat Congress session, he fought for Tilak's candidature for presidentship.

Dadabhai Naoroji (1824-1917)
Also known as the 'Grand Old Man of India', he was a prominent Congress leader and worked for Swaraj in England which was the centre of his political activities. He was the first Indian to be elected member of the House of Commons from a London county. He authored Poverty and Un-British Rule in India.

Surendranath Bannerji (1848-1925)
He entered the Indian Civil Services in 1869 but was dismissed for a minor irregularity. He then established the Rippon College of which he remained the Principal for several years. Surendranath Bannerji started a daily newspaper 'Bengal' which was published in English. He was the president of Indian National Congress twice (1895 and 1902).

Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915)
Started as a maths teacher and rose to the position of Principal of the well-known Ferguson College, Pune. He played a commendable role in the Imperial Legislative Council of which he was a member in 1902. He founded 'The Servants of India Society' and served as President of the Indian National Congress in 1907.

Ms Annie Besant (1847-1933)
Also known as the 'Grand Old Lady of Indian Nationalism'. She became member of the Theosophical Society in 1889 and became its President in 1907. She settled in India and worked for the social upliftment of the people. Ms Annie Besant joined the Congress and in 1916 inaugurated the All India 'Home Rule League' in Madras. She played a prominent role in uniting militant and moderate leaders at the Congress session in Lucknow in 1920. Later she left the Congress but continued to serve India. She translated the Bhagawad Gita into English.

Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928)
A dedicated social worker educationist, he joined the Indian National Congress in 1888. He supported the extremist leaders in the 1907 Congress split-along with Tilak. Lal Lajpat Rai started and edited a newspaper Young India, presided over the 1920 Congress Session and became member of the Indian Legislative Assembly in 1923. In 1920 he led the non-cooperation movement in Punjab and was sent to jail. On a visit to Lahore on October 30, 1928, he suffered severe lathi blows in a police attack and later died of injuries. He is also called 'Sher-e-Punjab' and 'Punjab Kesri'.

C. R. Das (1870-1925)
Also known as 'Deshbandhu', a lawyer in the Calcutta Bar he entered politics in 1920. He presided over the Gaya Congress session and along with Motilal Nehru and Hakim Ajmal Khan launched the 'Swaraj Party' in 1923.

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya (1861-1946)
He joined the Congress in 1886 and was twice elected President of the Indian National Congress. He represented the Hindu community at the Round Table Conference and founded the Nationalist Party to protect rights of the Hindu community.

Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948)
Known as 'Father of the Nation' and 'Bapu', he was a true believer of non-violence. He led the Indian National Movement from 1920 to 1947. He worked for Hindu-Muslim unity but was assassinated in 1948.

Subhash Chandra Bose (1897)
Also known as 'Netaji', he resigned from the Indian Civil Service in 1921 and supported the non-cooperation movement led by Gandhiji. He was elected president of the Congress in 1938 but left the Congress in 1939 and formed the 'Forward Black' party. Subhash Chandra Bose was arrested during World War II but escaped from India and went to Japan where he formed theIndian National Army (INA) to fight the British but was unsuccessful due to Japan's surrender after the war. It was Netaji's wish to unfurl the national-flag at the Red Fort in Delhi. It is thus in his remembrance that the National Flag is unfurled every year at Red Fort on August 15. He also gave the slogan 'Jai Hind' to the nation. He is believed to have died in an air-crash in 1945.

Motilal Nehru (1861-1931)
A national leader of the Gandhian era; a noted lawyer of the Allahabad High Court, Motilal Nehru joined the Home Rule League in 1917 and was elected president of the Indian National Congress in 1930. He founded the Swaraj Party and donated his palatial house 'Anand Bhawan' (later known as Swaraj Bhawan) to the Congress.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875-1950)
Also known as the 'Iron Man of India' Sardar Patel was Home Minister in independent India's cabinet during which time he worked tirelessly for the integration of the Indian princely states.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888-1958)
A great national leader who believed in communal harmony, he was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1923 and was a close associate of Gandhiji. He remained Union Minister of Education from January 1947 till his death on February 22,1958.

Dr Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963)
Joined the Congress in 1911. He also edited a Hindi weekly called Desh. He is said to have changed the whole base of Indian politics after the 1920 Nagpur session of the Congress by deciding to involve the masses in the freedom movement. He remained Food and Agriculture Minister in the interim ministry and was elected President of the Constituent Assembly in 1947. He later took over as President of India between 1952 and 1962.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
A leading member of the Indian National Congress. As Congress President at the 1929 Lahore Session he declared that complete independence was the aim of the Congress. Jawaharlal Nehru remained PM of India from 1947 till his death. He pronounced the doctrine of Panchsheel which is based on the ideology of peaceful co-existence and non-alignment. He authored Discovery of India and Glimpses of World History, among other books.

Major Dynasties and Rulers of India

Major Dynasties and Rulers of India

6–4 BC  Magadhan Ascendancy (North India)
  544–492  Bimbisara
 492–460  Ajatshatru
  344–323  Mahapadma Nanda, Dhan Nanda
4–2 BC  Mauryan Empire (Areas south of Karnataka)
  324–300  Chandragupta Maurya
  298–273  Bindusara
  273–236  Ashoka
2–1 BC  Shungas (Ganges valley and part of Central India)
  184–151  Demetrius II
  155–130  Menander (Milinda)
1 BC–AD 3  Satavahanas (North Deccan) 120 Gautamiputra Satakarni
1 BC–AD 3  Shakas (West India)
1 BC–AD 3  Kushanas  (Northern India and Central Asia)
AD 4–AD 6  Guptas (North India)
  319/20–330  Chandragupta I
  330–375  Samudragupta
  375–413  Chandragupta II
  413–455  Kumaragupta I
  455–477  Skandagupta
AD 4–AD 9  Pallavas (Tamil Nadu)
AD 5–AD 6  Hunas (Northwestern India and Central Asia)
AD 7  Harsha (North India and Central Asia)
300–888  Pallavas (Tamil Nadu)
  630–668  Narasimhavaraman Mahamalla
  695–722  Narasimhavaram II
556–757  Chalukyas of  Vatapi (West and Central Deccan)
609–642  Pulakeshin II
7th to 10th C  Pandyas of Madurai (Tamil Nadu)
 668–815  Veruguna I
  815–862  Shrimara Shrivallabha
  862–867  Varaguna II
630–970  Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (Andhra Pradesh)
750–1142  Rashtrakutra (West and Central Deccan)
773–1019  Pratiharas (West India and Upper Ganges)
850–1276  Cholas of Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu)
916–1203  Chandellas (Bundelkhand)
850–1195  Kalachuris of Tripuri (Madhya Pradesh)
973–1192  Chalukyas of Kalyani (West and Central Deccan)
974–1060  Paramaras (Malwa)
1090–1193  Gahadavalas (Kanauj)
1110–1327  Hoysalas of Dvarasamudra (South Deccan)
1118–1199  Senas (Bengal)
1190–1294  Yadavas of Deyagiri (North Deccan)
1206–1290  Ilbari
1290–1320  Khilji
1320–1414  Tughlaqus
1451–1526  Lodis
1526–1857  Mughals
1540–1555  Suri
1649–1818  Marathas
1708–1818  Peshwas

Hindu Religious Books

Hindu Religious Books

There are four Vedas–
1. The Rig Veda
2. The Sama Veda
3. The Yajur Veda and
4. The Atharva Veda
They represent the high water mark of Hindu intellect. They constitute the basis of vedantic philosophy.
1. The Ramayan written by Valmiki
2. The Mahabharat written by Ved Vyas
They are 18 in number. They constitute a mixture of religion, history, mythology and
tradition. These Puranas are–
01. Brahma Purana
02. Padma Purana
03. Vishnu Purana
04. Vayavya Purana
05. Bhagvad Purana
06. Naridiaya Purana
07. Markandeya Purana
08. Brahmvaivart Purana
09. Leng Purana
10. Varah Purana
11. Skanda Purana
12. Garud Purana
13. Brahmand Purana
14. Aagneyay Purana
15. Bhavishya Purana
16. Baaman Purana
17. Karma Purana
18. Matsaya Purana
Shastras or the Darshanas
Six in number.
Ten in number.

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Indian Presidents

1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad
India’s first president after independence was dr. Rajendra Prasad born on december 3, 1884 in the Saran district of North Bihar. Prasad spent his childhood listening to tales from the Ramayana, and the epic had a profound influence on his life. He was a brilliant student, he studied in the Presidency College, Calcutta, and topped in Master of Arts and Master of Law at the Calcutta University.
He joined the Indian National Congress while practicing Law in Calcutta in 1911. Even though he made his mark as a lawyer, he was deeply influenced by Gandhi, and plunged himself into the freedom struggle. He twice became the president of the Congress in 1934 and 1939.
Prasad emerged as the only choice for presidency after the country became a Republic in 1950. When it came to relinquishing office in 1962, after being the First Citizen of India for 12 long years from January 26, 1950 to May 13, 1962, Dr. Prasad did not bat an eyelid, despite persuasions from all quarters. The nation befittingly awarded him with a Bharat Ratna. He was passed on February 28, 1963.
2. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
The Second President Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan born on September 5, 1888 in a middle class Hindu family in Tirutani in the then Madras State. He best known as a philosopher, statesman, writer, educationist, humanist and administrator, despite being orthodox, his parents had a vision for their son and sent him to Christain missionary schools and colleges, such as Lutheran Mission School, Tirupati; Vellore College, Vellore; and Madras Christian College.
He took up Philosophy at the graduation level in Madras University and went on to master the subject. Throughout his glorious career, Radhakrishnan held numerous important academic, cultural and political posts, both in India and abroad, such as Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University, Spaulding Professor of Eastern Religion and Ethics, Oxford University, Leader of the Indian Delegation to UNESCO, Ambassador-Extraord inary and Minister-Plenipoten tiary to the U.S.S.R., etc.
Dr. Radhakrishnan became the President after Dr. Rajendra Prasad, his presidency period starts from May 13, 1962 to May 13, 1967. His birthday is celebrated as Teacher’s Day throughout India he passed on April 17, 1975.
3. Dr. Zakir Hussain
Third President an educator, Dr. Zakir Hussain was born in Hyderabad on February 8, 1897. He studied at Islam High School, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, and later at the Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College (now known as Aligarh Muslim University).
He founded the Jamia Millia Islamia University in Delhi. He held several posts as Chairman, Central Board of Secondary Education, a member of the University Grants Commission and a member of the University Education Commission. Hussain served as the Vice-President from 1962 to 1967 and then went on to grace Rashtrapati Bhavan as the third President. The first President to die while in office on may 3, 1969, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1954 and the Bharat Ratna in 1963.
4. Varahagiri Venkata Giri
Fourth President Varahagiri Venkata Giri was a prolific writer and a good orator, he was born in Berhampur in the Ganjam district(then a part of the Madras Presidency) of Orissa on August 10, 1894.
A Telegu by birth, he went to the University of Dublin, Ireland, for higher studies. He soon got absorbed into the freedom struggle in Ireland. While taking active participation in the freedom movement, Giri joined the Indian National Congress and mobilised the trade unions in support of the freedom struggle. He was elected to the Parliament in 1952. Thereafter, Giri served as Governor of Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Mysore from 1957 to 1967. He became the Vice-President in 1967. Giri had to officiate as President Dr. Zakir Hussain passed away while in office. He was finally elected the President in 1969. Giri received the Bharat Ratna in 1975.
5. Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
The Fifth President Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed man of many abilities, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was born on May 13, 1905 in the Hauz Qazi area of Old Delhi. He received his primary education from Bonda Government High School, Uttar Pradesh, and did his matriculation from the Delhi Government High School, then under the Punjab University. Later, he joined the Catherine College, Cambridge University, and was called to the Bar from Inner Temple of London. Ahmed joined the Indian National Congress in 1931 and took active part in the freedom struggle. He became part of the Central Cabinet after Independence and held important portfolios. He could not complete his term due to a fatal heart attack on February 11, 1977.
6. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
India’s sixth President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy was born in the Anantpur district of Andhra Pradesh on May 18, 1913. After completing his primary education at Theosophical High School at Adyar in Madras, Reddy went to Government’s Arts College at Anantpur for higher studies. He plunged into the freedom movement in 1931, participating in various nationalist activities.
Reddy became the chief minister of the then newly-formed state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956, and later from 1962 to 1964. He served in the cabinet of Prime ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi. Twice elected as the Lok Sabha Speaker (1967 and 1977), Reddy became the President in 1977 after winning the elections hands down as an unopposed candidate.
7. Giani Zail Singh
Giani Zail Singh a man of the masses and the only Sikh President of India till date, Zail Singh was born on May 5, 1916 in an agricultural family in village Sandhwan in the then Faridkot State. Hailing from a humble background, Singh showed remarkable acumen in mastering Sikh history and its scriptures. He acquired the epithet of ‘Giani’ because of his scholarly abilities.
After leading the fight against feudalism and participating actively in the freedom movement in Punjab, Singh went on to become the chief minister of the state in 1972. Punjab enjoyed unprecedented peace and prosperity under his leadership. He became home minister in Indira Gandhi cabinet in 1980, he utilised his administrative skills to solve many problems that stared in the face of the nation. He was elected to the highest office of India in 1982.
8. Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Eighth President, Ramaswamy Venkataraman was born in village Rajamadam in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu on December 4, 1910. He did his Masters in Economics from Madras University and Law from Law College, Madras. As a practicing lawyer, he became involved with the Quit India Movement in 1942.
Venkataraman was a member of the Constituent Assembly that drafted India`s Constitution. After India became a Republic, he was elected to the Parliament in 1952. He was Governor, International Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the Asian Development Bank. He was elected Vice-President of India in 1984 and became the President in 1987.
9. Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma
The Ninth President Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma was born in Bhopal on August 19, 1918, Madhya Pradesh, and studied in St. John’s College, Agra; Allahabad University; Lucknow University; Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge University; Lincoln’s Inn, London and Harvard Law School, USA.
He taught Law at Cambridge University in 1946-47. While in Britain, Sharma took active interest in India’s struggle for Independence, and later joined the Indian National Congress. After India became a Republic, Sharma took over as the Chief Minister of Bhopal in 1952 before the state of Madhya Pradesh was formed. He also occupied the posts of the Governor of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Maharashtra. Sharma was elected the Vice-President in 1987 and eventually the country’s President in 1992. He is credited to have sworn in three prime ministers.
10. Kocheril Raman Narayanan
The tenth president Kocheril Raman Narayanan was a scholar and a writer, Narayanan was born in village Uzhavoor in Kottayam district of Kerala on October 27, 1920. He did his Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts in English Literature from Travancore University, and later went on to study at the London School of Economics.
Narayanan joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1949 and served in Rangoon, Tokyo, London, Canberra and Hanoi. He was India’s Ambassador to Thailand, Turkey, China, and eventually became Secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs in 1976. He was India’s Ambassador to the United States from 1980 to 1984. Elected to the post of Vice-President in 1992, Narayanan became the President in 1997. He was also the first President to cast his vote in the 1998 General Elections. He passed away on November 9, 2005.
11. Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
One of the most distinguished scientists of India, Abdul Kalam is known as the Missile Man of India. He was born at Rameswaram, in Tamil Nadu on October 15, 1931, and studied Aeronautical Engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology.
Kalam developed India`s first Satellite Launch Vehicle. He also developed and enabled operationalisation of Agni and Prithvi missiles. It was largely because of his efforts that India became a nuclear weapons country. Befittingly, he has been bestowed with all the three civilian honours of the Nation. The 11th President is also credited with many firsts to his credit. He is the first President to be awarded the Bharat Ratna before he occupied Rashtrapati Bhavan, the first scientist to become the President and the first bachelor to be elected to the highest office of the land. He created history by flying the Sukhoi 30.
12. Smt. Pratibha Patil
The 12th and current president of india, she is the first indian women appointed at the top post of the indian constituency.

Swami Vivekananda Speech

Swami Vivekananda’s Speech in Chicago which is till date considered as the best speech given on the ococasion of worlds religions meet specially in indian national language.
Sisters and Brothers of America,
It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to rise in response to the warm and cordial welcome which you have given us. I thank you in the name of the most ancient order of monks in the world;
I thank you in the name of the mother of religions, and I thank you in the name of millions and millions of Hindu people of all classes and sects.
My thanks, also, to some of the speakers on this platform who, referring to the delegates from the Orient, have told you that these men from far-off nations may well claim the honor of bearing to different lands the idea of toleration.
I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance. We believe not only in universal toleration, but we accept all religions as true.
I am proud to belong to a nation which has sheltered the persecuted and the refugees of all religions and all nations of the earth.
I am proud to tell you that we have gathered in our bosom the purest remnant of the Israelites, who came to Southern India and took refuge with us in the very year in which their holy temple was shattered to pieces by Roman tyranny.
I am proud to belong to the religion which has sheltered and is still fostering the remnant of the grand Zoroastrian nation. I will quote to you, brethren, a few lines from a hymn which I remember to have repeated from my earliest boyhood, which is every day repeated by millions of human beings : “As the different streams having their sources in different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee.”
The present convention, which is one of the most august assemblies ever held, is in itself a vindication, a declaration to the world of the wonderful doctrine preached in the Gita :
“Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths which in the end lead to me.”
Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth. They have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilization and sent whole nations to despair.
Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now. But their time is come; and I fervently hope that the bell that tolled this morning in honor of this convention may be the death-knell of all fanaticism, of all persecutions with the sword or with the pen, and of all uncharitable feelings between persons wending their way to the same goal.