Showing posts with label info. Show all posts
Showing posts with label info. Show all posts

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Interview Tips

Interview Tips

Interviews can be nerve-wracking, but knowledge of certain basic interview-handling techniques would enable you to get the most from the experience.
Here are some tips to assist you in handling any interview successfully:

Before The Interview

  • Be prepared:

  • >
    Do the necessary background research on the company (i.e. its mission, values, organizational culture, products/services, etc)
    Ensure that you have the pertinent interview details (i.e. the date, time and venue for the interview, the interviewer’s full name, the correct pronunciation and his or her title)
    Prepare the necessary documents to bring along for the interview. These documents would include extra copies of your resume, educational certificates, your identity card/passport, photographs, etc.

  • Know yourself :

  • >
    Assess your strengths and weaknesses, vis-à-vis the requirements of the position that you are applying for, so that you can market your job fit effectively during the interview.
    Be prepared to share on your career aspirations, motivation and other interests to demonstrate that you are a well-balanced individual

  • Be proactive :

  • >
    Prepare some questions to pose at the end of the interview to show your interest in the company.
    At The Interview

  • Don’t be late :

  • >
    Plan to arrive at least 15 minutes before the interview 

  • Dress appropriately :

  • >Always wear neat and clean clothing
    >Check your breath, teeth and appearance before entering the interview
    >Avoid any dressing that would distract the interviewer, such as loud colours, heavy make-up, gaudy accessories/nail polish, tight /see-through clothing, etc

  • Be professional :

  • >Offer a firm handshake
    >Sit only when offered a seat
    >Sit upright
    >Maintain eye contact with your interviewer (s), as this conveys your sincerity and commitment.
    >Speak with a well-modulated voice that conveys an appropriate level of enthusiasm
    >Avoid unnecessary derogatory comments about your present or previous employers/colleagues.

  • Be sincere and confident, not overbearing :

  • >Avoid appearing desperate or overly confident for the position.
    >Smile, and show your enthusiasm and interest in the position.
    >Listen attentively to the interviewer.
    >Answer questions truthfully and sincerely.

  • Think before you speak :

  • >Only ask the questions that will steer the conversation in your favor (e.g. if you wish to highlight certain experience/skills that are relevant to the position you have applied for)
    >Give clear and concise answers to the questions posed to you
    >Watch for non-verbal cues from the interviewers.
    >Know the intent behind the interviewers’ questions. Ultimately the interviewers need to assess your suitability for the job and your fit with the organization.
    >Do not be too aggressive in enquiring on the salaries, benefits, etc, on the first interview. If the interviewer asks for your financial expectations, you may indicate your last-drawn salary but you should stress that you value career opportunities over a specific salary. Alternatively, you can enquire what salary range the job falls in, to give you a better sense of how to position your financial expectations.

    After The Interview
    >Thank the interviewer for his time and consideration.
    >Enquire about the next step in the process.
    >If you are interested in the position, indicate your interest to the interviewer. Do not be discouraged if no immediate commitment is made, as the interviewer may need to interview more candidates before making a decision, or may be testing your reaction.
    >Send a Thank You letter immediately after every job interview, to indicate your interest and commitment to the position.

    Resume Tips

    Resume Tips

    Tips on Writing an Effective Resume
    Resumes are prepared for a very precise reason - to be successful in getting an interview call. A resume is an ad copy & nothing more and nothing less.
    A great resume does not just convey what you have done but asserts what all good ads do. It convinces the employer that you have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career. It would be a mistake if you consider your resume as a history list of your past or a personal statement. Resumes are written with an intent to create interest and persuade the employer to call you for an interview.
    Resume Writing Tips
    More often than not, Resume writing involves several long hours and heaps of wasted paper. JobsBazaar Resume Maker will help you build a well formatted worldclass resume online within just 15 to 20 minutes depending on how extensive your resume is. You could get it right the first time by following the tips offered by us.

    Review job description
    It is often found that job seekers do not read the job description. The result is a resume that does not fit the recruiter's requirement neither in skills nor in experience. Most recruiters do not have the time or the patience to scan through your resume. You will have to highlight the applicable skills and experience you have, pertaining to the job offered.

    When a company does not offer a formal job description, you could contact the hiring manager and find what he is looking for in the position you are interested in. In case that you cant reach anyone, review the job listings with similar titles for a group of core competencies.
    Focus your writing efforts
    Be clear on what the employer is looking for and what you have to offer before you begin writing your resume. Write your answers to the question - what would make someone the perfect candidate?
    Choose the best resume format
    You will have to make a choice between the two basic styles of resumes. 1. Chronological and 2. Functional.

    A chronological resume organizes your work history emphasizing experiences that precisely apply to a particular position.

    A functional resume is preferred when you have little or no experience in an industry. It presents your skills in categories that emphasize on particular skills the job requires. For instance, if the job description lays emphasis on strong sales skills, dividing the resume into categories such as "communication skills", "negotiation skills", "persuasion skills" etc. could be considered.
    Present the list of your accomplishments
    Most job seekers often fail to mention their accomplishments, and the results of their accomplishments. These details not only distinguish you from the horde of others who seek the job, but also present you a chance to negotiate your pay better.
    Use keywords
    If there are terms that show your competence in a particular field, use them in your resume. Marketing people might use "competitive analysis" while an software professional could have "Java" or "ASP"
    Consider a highlight section
    Recruiters and hiring managers seldom take over a minute to read a resume. To make your minute count, consider including a highlight section at the top of your resume, directly below your name, and, if you use one, your objective. Highlight sections mainly benefit job seekers whose qualifications do not exactly match the job description. You are more likely to get the recruiter's attention by emphasizing your transferable skills and exceptional accomplishments at the top of your resume instead of scattering them throughout.

    The highlight section could be formatted in a bulleted list presenting the following details. 
    1.Number of years' experience in the field or line of work
    2.Relevant credentials or training.
    3.An accomplishment that directly relates to the job.
    4.A personal "quality" or "characteristic" that relates to the job.
    5.Another accomplishment or characteristic that relates to the job.
    Proof read your resume
    An elegant error free resume is fundamental to a successful job search. Typos, misprints, illegible text and grammar errors would almost certainly land your resume into the trash basket.
    Have someone else review your resume
    It is often easier said than done to find one's own errors. It can also be difficult to judge one's high points oneself and clearly convey one's accomplishments. Have someone review your job search objective, your resume, and listings of positions that interest you. The reviewer's questions can help you discover areas you unconsciously left of your resume, or might provide you an insight into what areas seem to be confusing.

    Thursday, March 24, 2011

    Read it, if you want to clear Interview...!!!

    Question 1:
     What will you do if I run away with your sister?" 

     The candidate who was selected answered " I will not get a better match for my sister than you sir" 

    Question 2: 
     Interviewer (to a student girl candidate) - What is one morning you woke up & found that you were pregnant Girl ? 

     - I will be very excited and take an off, to celebrate with my husband. 
     Normally an unmarried girl will be shocked to hear this, but she managed it well. Why I should think it in the wrong way, she said later when asked 

    Question 3: 
     Interviewer: He ordered a cup of coffee for the candidate. Coffee arrived kept before the candidate, then he asked what is before you? 

    Candidate: Instantly replied "Tea" and got selected. 

    You know how and why did he say "TEA" when he knows very well that coffee was kept before. 

    (Answer: The question was "What is before you (U -alphabet) Reply was "TEA" ( T - alphabet), Alphabet "T" was before Alphabet "U" 

    Question 4: 
     Where Lord Rama would have celebrated his "First Diwali"? People will start thinking of Ayodya, Mithila [Janaki's place], Lanka etc... 

    But the logic is, Diwali was a celebrated as a mark of Lord Krishna Killing Narakasura. In Dusavataar, Krishnavathaar comes after Raamavathaar. 

    So, Lord Rama would not have celebrated the Diwali At all! 

    Question 5: 
     You are driving along in your car on a wild, stormy night, it's raining heavily, when suddenly you pass by a bus stop, and you see three people waiting for a bus: 

    -- An old lady who looks as if she is about to die. 
    -- An old friend who once saved your life. 
    -- The perfect partner you have been dreaming about. 

    Which one would you choose to offer a ride to, knowing very well that there could only be one passenger in your car? 

    This is a moral/ethical dilemma that was once actually used as part of a job application. 

    * You could pick up the old lady, because she is going to die, and thus you should save her first; 
    * or you could take the old friend because he once saved your life, and this would be the perfect chance to ! pay him back. 
    * However, you may never be able to find your perfect mate again... 

    The candidate who was hired (out of 200 applicants) had no trouble coming up with his answer. Guess what was his answer? 

    He simply answered: 

    "I would give the car keys to my Old friend and let him take the lady to the hospital. I would stay behind and wait for the bus with the partner of my dreams." 

    Sometimes, we gain more if we are able to give up our stubborn thought limitations. Never forget to "Think Outside of the Box." 

    Question 6: 
     The interviewer asked to the candidate "This is your last question of the interview. Please tell me the exact position of the center of this table where u have kept your files."

    Candidate confidently put one of his finger at some point at the table and told that this was the central point at the table. Interviewer asked how did u get to know that this being the central point of this table, then he answers quickly that sir u r not likely to ask any more question, as it was the last question that u promised to ask..... 

    And hence, he was selected as because of his quick-wittedness.

    Saturday, December 18, 2010

    Answers for all your Questions from online People through IM, Twitter, email Aardvark

    This website Aardvark is a free online social network based find answers to all your questions easily. Instead of googling for each and everything, Aardvark will get the solutions for people who know the answer. It is the first Social Search Engine which searches for people instead of web pages. You can use it via email, Instant Messenger, Twitter, iPhone and also the Web version.
    You can add Aardvark as a friend on your IM list and whenever you need anything you can just open the window and type your question and Aardvark will ask you details and asks your friends, and friends of friends to find the right person to answer your question.
    Everything can be done by typing keywords in the reply window like Pass, If you don’t know the answer and Mute, If the particular topic is not familiar to you and Sure, if you want to answer, etc.
    The answers you get through Aardvark are much better than Google as you will be getting them from people who know and not just from any other website with resources. The recent launch of website makes it much easier to use this free application.
    If you got a question, Just go to Aardvark website, and ask your question in the space provided and Aardvark will send the question to some people and picks perfect person to answer and sends the response via eMail , IM or Twitter. You can also see live questions that just got answered.
    You need to create an account to find your answers. It is very easy process and Facebook Connect can also be used to login. Aardvark works on information sharing and it is very useful to get the right solutions for your questions. I am testing it from a long time and it always satisfied me with great results. You got to try it to know its benefits.

    Thursday, December 16, 2010

    Basic Forces in Nature

    Basic Forces in Nature
    Following Four Basic Forces operate in all natural processes:
    1. Gravitation Forces
    2. Weak Force
    3. Electromagnetic Force
    4. Strong Forces
    1. Gravitation Forces
    • It is the force of attraction between two masses.
    • It is always attractive in nature; hence sometimes it is taken with negative sign.
    • It is a long range force, i.e., it can extend up to infinity.
    • It follows inverse square law i.e., F ∞ 1 / r2.
    • It is assumed to be created by a particle called gravitation.
    • It is central force and hence, it is conservative in nature.
    • It is the weakest force.
    2. Weak Force in Physics
    a) It is the force associated with beta - decay in radioactivity.
    b) During beta - decay, following reaction takes place.

    Neutron Beta Particle
    or Electron
     Proton Antineutrino
    Since, neutrino is a chargeless - massless particle, therefore during beta - decay, the electron and antineutrino interact with each other through very weak forces.
    c) Moreover, the leptons interact with Leptons, Baryons or Mesons through these weak forces.
    3. Electromagnetic Force Physics
    a) Force between two static charges is called electrostatic force.
    b) A moving charge produces both magnetic and electric fields.
    The charged particle moving in magnetic field experiences a force called electromagnetic force comprising of electrostatic as well as magnetic forces.
    c) Electromagnetic force bears following properties:
    1. It may be attractive or repulsive in nature.
    2. It is created due to exchange of photons.
    3. It is long range force.
    4. It is 1011 time stronger than weak forces and 1036 times stronger than the gravitational force.
    5. It is central and conservative force.
    4. Strong Forces (Nuclear Force)
    1. It is the force of nuclear origin.
    2. It is basically attractive in nature.
    3. It is short range force and is operative only inside the nucleus (i.e., for distance = 10-14 m)
    4. They are produced by the exchange of mesons between the nucleons (neutron & proton).
    5. It is not a central force.
    6. It is the strongest force acting in nature. The relative strengths of the gravitational force, the weak force, the electromagnetic force and the strong nuclear force are :

      Fg : Fw : Fe : Fn :: 1 : 1025 : 1036 : 1038

    Basic Forces in Nature

    Scientific Explanation of Common Phenomena

    1. It is dangerous to sleep in an unventilated room with fire burning inside because the fire produces carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases. Carbon monoxide is poisonous and can cause death. 
    2. The filament of an electric bulb is made of tungsten because it has a high melting point and can be heated to a high temperature to emit light. 
    3. Water kept in an earthen pitcher becomes cold because the pitcher has minute pores on its surface which absorb water. Water in the pores evaporates when it comes in contact with air, and produces a cooling effect. 
    4. A sliced apple, when exposed to air, turns brown after some time as it contains iron which gets oxidised and gives the fruit a brownish colour. 
    5. The freezing compartment inside a refrigerator is at the top because the air in contact with it becomes cold and heavy and sinks downwards, cooling the rest of the compartment. 
    6. A copper vessel left in the air for a long time turns green. This is due to the formation of copper carbonate when copper reacts with carbon dioxide and moisture present in the air. 
    7. A wick in a stove keeps burning continuously as kerosene rises in the wick due to capillary action. 
    8. The Earth rotates on its axis from west to east. This rotation makes the sun and the stars appear to be moving across the sky from east to west. 
    9. The sky appears blue because the light of the sun is spread or scattered by the dust particles in the air. In space the sky would appear black as there are no dust or air particles to scatter the light. 
    10. Food is cooked quickly in a pressure cooker because the boiling point of water increases at high pressure. Food cooks faster at high temperature. 
    11. In mountainous regions, the atmospheric pressure is less than it is at seal level water, therefore, boils at a lower temperature(less than 100° C) and food takes more time to cook.
    12. When ice floating in a glass of water melts, the level of water remains unchanged because as a solid, ice displace an equal volume of water.
    13. A man weigh more at the poles than at the equator because the polar radius of the Earth is less than the equatorial radius .Hence the gravitational pull is more at the poles than at the equator.
    14. Standing in double-decker buses, particularly on the upper floor, is not allowed because on tilting, the centre of gravity of the bus gets changed and it is likely to overturn.
    15. The boiling point of seawater will be more than the boiling point of pure water because the former contains salt and other impurities.
    16. An ordinary clock loses time in summer because the length of its pendulum increases, and therefore, its time period also increases. The pendulum takes more time to complete each oscillation and thus loses time.
    17. Whenever there is water loss from the body, secretion of saliva is reduced resulting in dryness of the mouth and stimulating the sensation of thirst. Intake of fluid then helps in restoring the loss of the water.
    18. A swimmer just out of the river feels cold particularly if it is windy, because of the evaporation of water from his body surface. The evaporation is more on a windy day.
    19. Alcohol is sometimes rubbed on the body of a person suffering from fever. As soon as it is applied on the body, it evaporates taking away some heat from the body. Since evaporation has a cooling effect, the body temperature can be reduced by rubbing alcohol.
    20. Soft iron is used as an electromagnet because it remains a magnet only while the current passes through the coil around it and loses its magnetism when the current is switched off. 

    21. The person jumping out of a moving train is carried forward in the direction of the train because the person himself is in motion sharing the velocity of the train and will continue in its state of uniform motion unless it exercises some force to prevent it (Newton’s first law of motion).
    22. A lightning conductor is fixed to tall buildings to protect them from the destructive effects of the lightning.
    23. An electric bulb makes a bang when it is broken because there is a vacuum inside the electric bulb; when the bulb is broken air rushes in at great speed from all sides to fill the vacuum. The rushing of air produces a noise generally referred to as the “bang”.
    24. A small space is left between each set of two rails of railway line to allow for their expansion in summer.
    25. A bad egg floats in water because the up-thrust produced on account of displaced water by the immersed portion of the bad egg is greater than the weight of the egg.
    26. Moisture gather on the outer surface of a glass tumbler containing cold water because the water vapors present in the air get cooled and appear as droplets of water on coming in contact with the cold surface of the glass tumbler.
    27. The launching of Earth satellites should be from a place near the equator to take the fullest advantage of the earth’s movements. The regions of the Earth closer to the equator.
    28. We experience difficulty in breathing on mountains because the pressure of the air out side is less as compared to the pressure of the pressure of air in side the lungs.
    29. If a highly corked glass bottle full of water is left out of doors on a frosty night and convert into ice. There is no room available for the increased volume and this may result in bursting of the bottle.
    30. Water extinguishes fire because as it evaporates, the temperature of the burning body is lowered, thus retarding or stopping the burning action also the resulting vapour surround the burning substance cutting off the oxygen supply thus inhibiting the burning process. In fact hot water will extinguish fire more quickly than cold water as hot water will vaporize faster. 

    How Fingerprint Scanners Work ?

    Introduction to How Fingerprint Scanners Work
    Computerized fingerprint scanners have been a mainstay of spy thrillers for Computer Mouse with Fingerprint Scannerdecades, but up until recently, they were pretty exotic technology in the real world. In the past few years, however, scanners have started popping up all over the place -- in police stations, high-security buildings and even on PC keyboards. You can pick up a personal USB fingerprint scanner for less than $100, and just like that, your computer's guarded by high-tech biometrics. Instead of, or in addition to, a password, you need your distinctive print to gain access.
    In this article, we'll examine the secrets behind this exciting development in law enforcement and identity security. We'll also see how fingerprint scanner security systems stack up to conventional password and identity card systems, and find out how they can fail.

    Fingerprint Basics

    Fingerprints are one of those bizarre twists of nature. Human beings happen to have built-in, easily accessible identity cards. You have a unique design, which represents you alone, literally at your fingertips. How did this happen?
    People have tiny ridges of skin on their fingers because this particular adaptation was extremely advantageous to the ancestors of the human species. The pattern of ridges and "valleys" on fingers make it easier for the hands to grip things, in the same way a rubber tread pattern helps a tire grip the road.
    Fingerprint Impression
    The other function of fingerprints is a total coincidence. Like everything in the human body, these ridges form through a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The genetic code in DNA gives general orders on the way skin should form in a developing fetus, but the specific way it forms is a result of random events. The exact position of the fetus in the womb at a particular moment and the exact composition and density of surrounding amniotic fluid decides how every individual ridge will form.
    So, in addition to the countless things that go into deciding your genetic make-up in the first place, there are innumerable environmental factors influencing the formation of the fingers. Just like the weather conditions that form clouds or the coastline of a beach, the entire development process is so chaotic that, in the entire course of human history, there is virtually no chance of the same exact pattern forming twice.
    Consequently, fingerprints are a unique marker for a person, even an identical twin. And while two prints may look basically the same at a glance, a trained investigator or an advanced piece of software can pick out clear, defined differences.
    This is the basic idea of fingerprint analysis, in both crime investigation and security. A fingerprint scanner's job is to take the place of a human analyst by collecting a print sample and comparing it to other samples on record.
    Optical Scanner

    A fingerprint scanner system has two basic jobs -- it needs to get an image of your finger, and it needs to determine whether the pattern of ridges and valleys in this image matches the pattern of ridges and valleys in pre-scanned images.
    There are a number of different ways to get an image of somebody's finger. The most common methods today are optical scanning and capacitance scanning. Both types come up with the same sort of image, but they go about it in completely different ways.
    The heart of an optical scanner is a charge coupled device (CCD), the same light sensor system used in digital cameras and camcorders. A CCD is simply an array of light-sensitive diodes called photosites, which generate an electrical signal in response to light photons. Each photosite records a pixel, a tiny dot representing the light that hit that spot. Collectively, the light and dark pixels form an image of the scanned scene (a finger, for example). Typically, an analog-to-digital converter in the scanner system processes the analog electrical signal to generate a digital representation of this image. See How Digital Cameras Work for details on CCDs and digital conversion.
    The scanning process starts when you place your finger on a glass plate, and a CCD camera takes a picture. The scanner has its own light source, typically an array of light-emitting diodes, to illuminate the ridges of the finger. The CCD system actually generates aninverted image of the finger, with darker areas representing more reflected light (the ridges of the finger) and lighter areas representing less reflected light (the valleys between the ridges).
    Before comparing the print to stored data, the scanner processor makes sure the CCD has captured a clear image. It checks the average pixel darkness, or the overall values in a small sample, and rejects the scan if the overall image is too dark or too light. If the image is rejected, the scanner adjusts the exposure time to let in more or less light, and then tries the scan again.
    If the darkness level is adequate, the scanner system goes on to check the image definition (how sharp the fingerprint scan is). The processor looks at several straight lines moving horizontally and vertically across the image. If the fingerprint image has good definition, a line running perpendicular to the ridges will be made up of alternating sections of very dark pixels and very light pixels.
    If the processor finds that the image is crisp and properly exposed, it proceeds to comparing the captured fingerprint with fingerprints on file. We'll look at this process in a minute, but first we'll examine the other major scanning technology, the capacitive scanner.
    Capacitance Scanner

    Like optical scanners, capacitive fingerprint scanners generate an image of the ridges and valleys that make up a fingerprint. But instead of sensing the print using light, the capacitors use electrical current.

    The diagram below shows a simple capacitive sensor. The sensor is made up of one or more semiconductor chips containing an array of tiny cells. Each cell includes two conductor plates, covered with an insulating layer. The cells are tiny -- smaller than the width of one ridge on a finger.
    Capacitance Scanner
    The sensor is connected to an integrator, an electrical circuit built around an inverting operational amplifier. The inverting amplifier is a complex semiconductor device, made up of a number of transistors, resistors and capacitors. The details of its operation would fill an entire article by itself, but here we can get a general sense of what it does in a capacitance scanner. (Check out this page on operational amplifiers for a technical overview.)
    Like any amplifier, an inverting amplifier alters one current based on fluctuations in another current (see How Amplifiers Work for more information). Specifically, the inverting amplifier alters a supply voltage. The alteration is based on the relative voltage of two inputs, called the inverting terminal and the non-inverting terminal. In this case, the non-inverting terminal is connected to ground, and the inverting terminal is connected to a reference voltage supply and a feedback loop. The feedback loop, which is also connected to the amplifier output, includes the two conductor plates.
    As you may have recognized, the two conductor plates form a basic capacitor, an electrical component that can store up charge (see How Capacitors Work for details). The surface of the finger acts as a third capacitor plate, separated by the insulating layers in the cell structure and, in the case of the fingerprint valleys, a pocket of air. Varying the distance between the capacitor plates (by moving the finger closer or farther away from the conducting plates) changes the total capacitance (ability to store charge) of the capacitor. Because of this quality, the capacitor in a cell under a ridge will have a greater capacitance than the capacitor in a cell under a valley.
    To scan the finger, the processor first closes the reset switch for each cell, which shorts each amplifier's input and output to "balance" the integrator circuit. When the switch is opened again, and the processor applies a fixed charge to the integrator circuit, the capacitors charge up. The capacitance of the feedback loop's capacitor affects the voltage at the amplifier's input, which affects the amplifier's output. Since the distance to the finger alters capacitance, a finger ridge will result in a different voltage output than a finger valley.
    The scanner processor reads this voltage output and determines whether it is characteristic of a ridge or a valley. By reading every cell in the sensor array, the processor can put together an overall picture of the fingerprint, similar to the image captured by an optical scanner.
    The main advantage of a capacitive scanner is that it requires a real fingerprint-type shape, rather than the pattern of light and dark that makes up the visual impression of a fingerprint. This makes the system harder to trick. Additionally, since they use a semiconductor chip rather than a CCD unit, capacitive scanners tend to be more compact that optical devices. 

    In movies and TV shows, automated fingerprint analyzers typically overlay various fingerprint images to find a match. In actuality, this isn't a particularly practical way to compare fingerprints. Smudging can make two images of the same print look pretty different, so you're rarely going to get a perfect image overlay. Additionally, using the entire fingerprint image in comparative analysis uses a lot of processing power, and it also makes it easier for somebody to steal the print data.

    Instead, most fingerprint scanner systems compare specific features of the fingerprint, generally known as minutiae. Typically, human and computer investigators concentrate on points where ridge lines end or where one ridge splits into two (bifurcations). Collectively, these and other distinctive features are sometimes called typica.
    The scanner system software uses highly complex algorithms to recognize and analyze these minutiae. The basic idea is to measure the relative positions of minutiae, in the same sort of way you might recognize a part of the sky by the relative positions of stars. A simple way to think of it is to consider the shapes that various minutia form when you draw straight lines between them. If two prints have three ridge endings and two bifurcations, forming the same shape with the same dimensions, there's a high likelihood they're from the same print.
    To get a match, the scanner system doesn't have to find the entire pattern of minutiae both in the sample and in the print on record, it simply has to find a sufficient number of minutiae patterns that the two prints have in common. The exact number varies according to the scanner programming.

    A new Earth -Astronomers find a planet similar to our own.

    Astronomers have spotted evidence of a second Earth being built around a distant star 424 light-years away. Using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, astronomers have spotted a huge belt of warm dust swirling around a young star called HD 113766 that is just slightly larger than our sun. The dust belt, which scientists suspect is clumping together to form planets, is located in the middle of the star system's terrestrial habitable zone where temperatures are moderate enough to sustain liquid water. Scientists estimate there is enough material in the belt to form a Mars-sized world or larger.

    At approximately 10 million years old, the star is just the right age for forming rocky planets, the researchers say. Their finding will be detailed in an upcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal.
    "The timing for this system to be building an Earth is very good," said study team member Carey Lisse, of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Baltimore, Md.
    If the star system were too young, the planet-forming disk would be full of gas, and it would be making gas-giant planets like Jupiter instead. If it was too old, Spitzer would have spotted rocky planets that had long ago formed.
    The star system also has the right mix of dusty materials in its disk to form an Earth-like planet, Lisse said.

    Using Spitzer's infrared spectrometer instrument, the team determined that the material around HD 113766 is more processed than the snowball-like stuff that makes up infant solar systems and comets, which are considered cosmic "refrigerators" because they contain pristine ingredients from the solar system's formative period. But it is also not as processed as the stuff found in mature planets and asteroids.
    "The material mix in this belt is most reminiscent of the stuff found in lava flows on Earth," Lisse said. "I thought of Mauna Kea [in Hawaii] material when I first saw the dust composition in this system – it contains raw rock and it's abundant in iron sulfides, which are similar to fool's gold."
    Earlier this year, scientists announced they had discovered one, and possibly two, already formed Earth-like planets around Gliese 581, a dim red star located only 20.5 light-years away. The planets, called Gliese 581c and Gliese 581d, are located at about the right distance from their star to support liquid water and life as we know it, but many more observations are needed to confirm this.
    Source: Ker Than(Staff Writer)