Showing posts with label General Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label General Science. Show all posts

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Prominent Scientists

Prominent Scientists

Albert Einstein
German-Swiss, famous scientist known for his theory of relativity. He lived between 1879 and 1955.

A Greek mathematician who lived about 250 B.C. He discovered the buoyancy in liquids, which is known as Archimedes Principle. He also invented Archimedean screw, a cylindrical device for raising water.

Dr. Brain Josephson
He belonged to England. He is known for the discovery of the 'Josephson effect'. He was honoured with a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973.

He was an astronomer of Poland who discovered the solar system. He lived between 1413 and 1543.

Dr. Dennis Gabor
A British engineer, presently working in America. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1971 for his invention in development of the holographic method-three dimensional  photography.

Dr. Edward Teller
A U.S. nuclear scientist. He developed the hydrogen bomb.

G. Marconi
Italian scientist, lived between 1874 and 1937. He invented radio telegraphy and succeeded in sending wireless messages across Atlantic ocean in 1901. He was honoured with a Nobel prize for Physics in 1909.

Italian scientist. He viewed that all falling bodies, great or small, descent with equal velocity. He invented telescope and became the first man to see the satellites of Jupiter. He lived between 1564 and 1642.

Henri Becquerel
He was a French physicist. He lived between 1852 and 1908. In 1896, discovered Becquerel rays, the first indications of radio-activity; later named as gamma rays. He shared Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903 with the Curies.

Henry Cavendish
Born in 1731 in Britain. He discovered hydrogen gas, determined the structure of water molecule and calculated the density of earth by an experiment. He died in 1810.

Sir Humphrey Davy
A British chemist. He invented the "safety lamp". First to apply electric current for the isolation of metals. He lived between 1778 and 1829.

Dr. H. Yukawa
Born in 1907. Predicted a new particle meson which holds the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus. He was the first Japanese to win the Nobel Prize in Physics (1949).

Sir Issac Newton
He was a British natural philosopher. He discovered 'binomial theorem'; the differential and the integral calculus and the Universal law of gravitation. He lived between 1642 and 1727.

Sir James Chadwick
A British physicist. He discovered the particle in an atomic nucleus known as the neutron, because it has no charge. He lived between 1891 and 1974.

Johannes Kepler
He was a German astronomer. He discovered the three laws of planetary motion. He lived between 1571 and 1630.

Sir J. J. Thomson
He was a British physicist. He lived between 1856 and 1940. He discovered the electron which resulted in the development of Electronics, a branch of Physics.

James Watt
He was a Scotish engineer., He lived between 1736 and 1819. He invented steam engine.

Prof. John Wardine
Propounded the "Theory of Superconductivity". For this he was honoured with a Nobel Prize in 1972 with Prof. Kapoor and Schriefer.

W. Konard Rontgen
He was a German physicist. He discovered X -rays or Rontgen rays for which he was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901. He lived between 1845 and 1923.

Madam Marie Curie
She was a Polish physicist and chemist. She discovered radium and was awarded a Nobel Prize for this in Physics in 1903. She was awarded with a second Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911. She lived between 1867 and 1934.

Michael Faraday
He was a British scientist. He was prominent in the field of electromagnetism. He discovered the laws of electrolysis and alternating current. He lived between 1791 and 1867.

Max Planck
A German theoretical physicist. He formulated the quantum theory. He was awarded with the Nobel Prize for it in 1918.

Neils Bohr
He was a Danish physicist. He extended the theory of atomic structure of devising an atomic model in 1913. He was awarded with a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He lived between 1885 and 1962.

Otto Hahn
He was a German pioneer of nuclear research. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944. He proved in 1938 that atomic fission can be achieved by bombarding Uranium with neutrons.

Robert Boyle
He was an Irish natural philosopher. He was one of the founders of modern chemistry and Boyle's law. He lived between 1627 and 1691.

He was a British scientist. He won a Nobel Prize for his work on structure of atom and radioactivity. He lived between 1871 and 1937.

Robert H. Goddard
He was an American pioneer of space research who mentioned the possibility of shooting a rocket to the moon in a paper entitled "A Method of Reaching Extreme Attitudes" published by him in 1919.

Sir Robert Watson-Watt
He was a British physicist. He developed radar.

S. N. Bose
He was an Indian scientist. He discovered a particle called 'boson'. He was awarded with Padam Vibhushan in 1954. He lived between 1894 and 1974.

Thomas Alva Edison
He was an American scientist. He lived between 1847 and 1931. He invented phonograph, electric bulb, a new type of storage battery, an early form of cinematography, telegraph etc.

A Russian pioneer who developed the basic theory of rocketry. He is also known as Father of Rocketry in Russia. He lived between 1857 and 1935.

Dr. Werner Yon Brown
He is a director of Marshall Space Flight Centre, America. Sattern Vrockets have been developed here by his efforts by which Apollo 11 and 12 were launched.

William Bragg
He was a British physicist who researched on the behaviour of crystals with regard to X -rays incident upon them. He lived between 1890 and 1971.

Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha (1909-66)
He was an Indian scientist. He published important papers on Cosmic Rays and Quantum Theory. He was a professor at the Indian Science Institute, Bangalore; Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; President, Indian Science Congress in 1951 and presided at the Atoms for Peace Conference held at Geneva in 1956. He had many significant researches in structure of atom and contributed largely to the setting up of atomic reactors at Trombay (Mumbai).

Dr. S. Bhagvantam
He was born in 1909 and was among the prominent scientists of India who gave important contribution in radio astronomy and cosmic rays.

Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar (1878-1955)
He was a great Indian scientist. He was the first Director General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Under his directorship, many research laboratories were established throughout India.

Jagdish Chandra Bose (1858­1937)
He was an eminent Physicist and Botanist. He founded Bose Research Institute, Calcutta. He invented crescograph.

Prof. Satish Dhawan
An eminent Indian scientist, born in 1920. He was chairman of Indian space Research Organisation. Indian artificial satellites' Aryabhatta' and Rohini were launched due to his efforts.

Dr. K. S. Radhakrishnan (1898­1961)
Dr. Krishnan had contributed greatly in the field of Physics. He associated Dr. C. V. Raman in the discovery of 'Raman Effect'. He was also the director of National Physics Laboratory, Delhi.

Dr. B. D. Nag Chaudhary
An eminent Indian Nuclear Physicist known all over the world. He associated Dr. Lawrence in the invention of Cyclotron. He had also been the director of Saha Nuclear Institute, Calcutta.

Dr. H. N. Sethna
He has greatly contributed in the development of nuclear technology in India. First atomic test in India was done under his guidance. He had been the Chairman of Atomic Power Com­mission of India. In 1959 he was awarded with Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar award and entitled with Padam Shree. He was also honoured with Padma Bhushan in 1966.

J. V. Narlikar
An Indian scientist who was the co-author of Hoyle-Narlikar theory of continuous creation which supplies missing links in Einstein's theory of Relativity. Hoyle and Narlikar have shown that the gravitation is always attractive and there is no gravitational repulsion.

Dr. Raja Ramanna
A prominent Indian scientist who was instrumental to stage India's first Nuclear explosion at Pokharan range in 1974. He had been a chairman of Atomic Energy Commission.

Dr. C. V. Raman (1888-1970)
First Indian scientist to receive Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929 for his invention 'Raman Effect'. His study of crystal structure is of unique importance. He was also awarded with Lennin award and Bharat Ratna.

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai (1919­1971)
Former Chairman of India's Atomic Energy Commission and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Dr. Sarabhai was an eminent physicist mainly interested in the astrophysical implications of Cosmic Ray Time variations. He also had an active contribution in the establish­ment of Physical Research Labora­tory, Ahmedabad and Indian Institute of Management.

Dr. Meghnad Saha (1893-1956)
He had provided a great contribution in the field of Physics and Mathematics. He is well known for his researches in nuclear physics, cosmic rays, spectrum analysis and other branches of theoretical Physics. Institute of Nuclear Physics was established due to his efforts. He was also a member of  Lok Sabha.

Dr. Subhramanyam Chandra­shekhar
He was an American of Indian origin. He won Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983. He is an Astro-physicist. His theory of Stellar Evolution-the birth and death of stars is 35 years old. He is the fourth Indian to win the Nobel Prize. In 1967, he was, also honoured by 'National Medal of Science' award in America.

A prominent Indian astronomer of 7th century. Second satellite of India was named after him.

Bhaskaracharya-II (1114-1185)
He was a great Hindu mathematician and astronomer.. His work 'sidhanta siromani' consists of two parts of mathematics and two parts of astronomy. He had a fore-sight on the modem theory of conventions.

Aryabhatta (476-550)
He was a great mathematician and an astronomer. His contributions include information about the movement of earth around the sun, determination of various physical parameters of various celestial bodies such as diameter of earth and moon. He laid foundations of algebra and pointed out the importance of zero. The first Indian satellite was named after him.

Some Scientific Instruments

Some Scientific Instruments

  • Altimeter–An instrument used for measuring altitudes in aircraft.
  • Ammeter–An instrument for measuring electric currents in amperes.
  • Anemometer–An instrument for measuring the force and velocity of wind.
  • Audiometer–An instrument for measuring the intensity of sound.
  • Audiophone–An instrument for improving imperfect sense of hearing.
  • Barometer–An apparatus used for measuring the atmospheric pressure.
  • Calorimeter–An instrument used for measuring quantities of heat.
  • Carburettor–An apparatus used in an internal combustion engine for charging air with petrol vapour.
  • Cardiograph–A medical instrument for tracing heart movements.
  • Chronometer–An instrument kept on board ships for measuring accurate time.
  • Crescograph–It is used for measuring growth in plants.
  • Dynamo–The origin of electricity in a dynamo is the transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy.
  • Galvanometer–An instrument for measuring electric currents of small magnitude.
  • Hydrometer–An instrument used for measuring the specific gravity of liquids.
  • Hydrophone–An instrument for recording sound under water.
  • Hygrometer–An instrument for measuring humidity in air.
  • Lactometer–An Instrument for measuring the relative density of milk.
  • Manometer–An instrument for measuring the pressure of a gases.
  • Mariner's compass–An apparatus used by sailors to know the direction. The needle always points north-south.
  • Microphone–An instrument used for converting sound waves into electrical vibrations and to magnify the sound.
  • Microscope–An instrument used for magnifying minute objects by a lens system.
  • Odometer–An instrument by which the distance covered by wheeled vehicles is measured.
  • Phonograph–An instrument for reproducing sound.
  • Photometer–It is an instrument for measuring the intensity of light; a device for comparing the luminous intensity of sources of light.
  • Polarimeter–An instrument used for measuring optical activity.
  • Pyrometer–An instrument for recording high temperatures from a great distance.
  • Radar–It is an abbreviated form of Radio, Angle, Direction and Range. It is used for detecting the direction and range of an approaching plane by means of radio microwaves.
  • Rain Gauge–An apparatus for recording rainfall at a particular place.
  • Radiometer–An instrument for measuring the emission of radiant energy.
  • Refractometer–An instrument to measure refractive indexes.
  • Seismometer or Seismograph–An instrument for recording earthquake shocks.
  • Sextant–An instrument used for measuring the altitude of the sun and other heavenly bodies.
  • Spectrometer–An instrument for measuring the energy distribution of a particular type of radiation.
  • Speedometer–An instrument which indicates the speed at which a vehicle is moving.
  • Spherometer–An instrument for measuring curvature of surfaces.

Branches of Science

Branches of Science

  • Acoustics : The study of sound (or the science of sound).
  • Aerodynamics : The study of the motion and control of solid bodies like aircraft, missiles, etc., in air.
  • Aeronautics : The science or art of flight.
  • Aeronomy : The study of the earth's upper atmosphere, including its composition, density, temperature and chemical reactions, as recorded by sounding rockets and earth satellites.
  • Aerostatics : The branch of statics that deals with gases in equilibrium and with gases and bodies in them.
  • Aetiology : The science of causation.
  • Agrobiology : The science of plant life and plant nutrition.
  • Agronomy : The science of soil management and the production of field crops.
  • Agrostology : The study of grasses.
  • Alchemy : Chemistry in ancient times.
  • Anatomy : The science dealing with the structure of animals, plants or human body.
  • Anthropology : The science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development of mankind.
  • Arboriculture : Cultivation of trees and vegetables.
  • Archaeology : The study of antiquities.
  • Astrochemistry : The study of interstellar matter with a view to knowing the origin of universe.
  • Astrology : The ancient art of predicting the course of human destinies with the help of indications deduced from the position and movement of the heavenly bodies.
  • Astronautics : The science of space travel.
  • Astronomy : The study of the heavenly bodies.
  • Astrophysics : The branch of astronomy concerned with the physical nature of heavenly bodies.
  • Autoecology : The study deals with the ecology of species.
  • Bacteriology : The study of bacteria.
  • Biochemistry : The study of chemical processes of living things.
  • Bioclimatology : Studies the effects of climate upon living organisms.
  • Biology : The study of living things.
  • Biometry : The application of mathematics to the study of living things.
  • Biomechanics : The study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms.
  • Biometeorology : Studies the effects of atmospheric conditions on living organisms.
  • Bionics : The study of functions, characteristics and phenomena observed in the living world and the application of this knowledge to the world of machines.
  • Bionomics : The study of the relation of an organism to its environments.
  • Bionomy : The science of the laws of life.
  • Biophysics : The physics of vital processes (living things).
  • Botany : The study of plants.
  • Ceramics : The art and technology of making objects from clay, etc. (pottery).
  • Chemistry : The study of elements and their laws of combination and behaviour.
  • Chemotherpy : The treatment of disease by using chemical substances.
  • Chronobiology : The study of the duration of life.
  • Chronology : The science of arranging time in periods and ascertaining the dates and historical order of past events.
  • Climatotherapy : The treatment of disease through suitable climatic environment, often, but not always, found in recognised health resorts. As climate is subject to seasonal variations, the required environment may have to be sought in different localities at different periods of the year.
  • Conchology : The branch of zoology dealing with the shells of mollusks.
  • Cosmogony : The science of the nature of heavenly bodies.
  • Cosmography : The science that describes and maps the main features of the universe.
  • Cryobiology : The science that deals with the study of organisms, especially warmblooded animals, at low temperature. The principal effect of cold on living tissues is destruction of life or preservation of it at a reduced level of activity.
  • Crystallography : The study of the structure, forms and properties of crystals.
  • Cryogenics : The science dealing with the production, control and application of very low temperatures.
  • Cryotherapy : Use of cold, but not freezing cold, as a form of treatment. Hypothermia may be deliberately induced during surgery, for instance, to decrease a patient's oxygen requirement.
  • Cytochemistry : The branch of cytology dealing with the chemistry of cells.
  • Cytogenetics : The branch of biology dealing with the study of heredity from the point of view of cytology and genetics.
  • Cytology : The study of cells, especially their formation, structure and functions.
  • Dactylography : The study of fingerprints for the purpose of identification.
  • Dermatology : The study of skin and skin diseases.
  • Ecology : The study of the relation of animals and plants to their surroundings, animate and inanimate.
  • Econometrics : The application of mathematics in testing economic theories.
  • Economics : The science dealing with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
  • Electronics : Studies the development, behaviour and applications of electronic devices and circuits.
  • Electrostatics : It is a study of static electricity.
  • Embryology : The study of development of embryos.
  • Entomology : The study of insects.
  • Epidemiology : The branch of medicine dealing with epidemic diseases.
  • Epigraphy : The study of inscriptions.
  • Ethnography : A branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures.
  • Ethnology : A branch of anthropology that deals with the origin, distribution and distinguishing characteristics of the races of mankind.
  • Ethology : The study of animal behaviour.
  • Eugenics : The study of the production of better offspring by the careful selection of parents.
  • Fractography : A study of fractures in metal surfaces.
  • Genealogy : The study of family origins and history. It includes the compilation of lists of ancestors and arranging them in pedigree charts.
  • Genecology : The study of genetical composition of plant population in relation to their habitats.
  • Genesiology : The science of generation.
  • Genetics : The branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it.
  • Geobiology : The biology of terrestrial life.
  • Geobotany : The branch of botany dealing with all aspects of relations between plants and the earth's surface.
  • Geochemistry : The study of the chemical composition of the earth's crust and the changes which take place within it.
  • Geodesy : Methods of surveying the earth for making maps and corelating geological, gravitational and magnetic measurements. It is a branch of geo-physics.
  • Geography : The development of science of the earth's surface, physical features, climate, population, etc.
  • Geology : The science that deals with the physical history of the earth.
  • Geomedicine : The branch of medicine dealing with the influence of climate and environmental conditions on health.
  • Geomorphology : The study of the characteristics, origin and development of land forms.
  • Geophysics : The physics of the earth.
  • Gerontology : The study of old age, its phenomena, diseases, etc.
  • Glaciology : The study of ice and the action of ice in all its forms, and therefore includings now.
  • Gynaecology : A study of diseases of women's reproductive organs.
  • Histology : The study of tissues.
  • Horticulture : The cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.
  • Hydrodynamics : The mathematical study of the forces, energy and pressure of liquid in motion.
  • Hydrography : The science of water measurements of the earth with special reference to their use for navigation.
  • Hydrology : The study of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the hydrosphere and atmosphere.
  • Hydrometallurgy : The process of extracting metals at ordinary temperature by bleaching ore with liquids.
  • Hydrometeorology : The study of the occurrence, movement and changes in the state of water in the atmosphere.
  • Hydropathy : The treatment of disease by the internal and external use of water.
  • Hydroponics : The cultivation of plants by placing the roots in liquid nutrient solutions rather than in soil.
  • Hydrostatics : The mathematical study of forces and pressures in liquids.
  • Hygiene : The science of health and its preservation.
  • Limnology : The study of lakes.
  • Lithology : It deals with systematic description of rocks.
  • Mammography : Radiography of the mammary glands.
  • Metallography : The study of the crystalline structures of metals and alloys.
  • Metallurgy : The process of extracting metals from their ores.
  • Meteorology : The science of the atmosphere and its phenomena.
  • Metrology : The scientific study of weights and measures.
  • Microbiology : The study of minute living organisms, including bacteria, molds and pathogenic protozoa.
  • Molecular biology : The study of the structure of the molecules which are of importance in biology.
  • Morpbology : The science of organic forms and structures.
  • Mycology : The study of fungi and fungus diseases.
  • Neurology : The study of the nervous system, its functions and its disorders.
  • Neuropathology : The study of diseases of the nervous system.
  • Nosology : The classification of diseases.
  • Numerology : The study of numbers. The study of the date and year of one's birth and to determine the influence on one's future life.
  • Odontology : The scientific study of the teeth.
  • Optics : The study of nature and properties of light.
  • Ornithology : The study of birds.
  • Orthopedics : The science of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of musculoskeletal system.
  • Osteology : The study of the bones.
  • Osteopathy : A therapeutic system based upon detecting and correcting faulty structure.
  • Otology : The study of the ear and its diseases.
  • Otorhinolaryngology : Study of diseases of ear, nose and throat.
  • Paleobotany : The study of fossil plants.
  • Paleontology : The study of fossils.
  • Pathology : The study of diseases.
  • Pharyngology : The science of the pharynx and its diseases.
  • Phenology : The study of periodicity phenomena of plants.
  • Philology : The study of written records, their authenticity, etc.
  • Phonetics : The study of speech sounds and the production, transmission, reception, etc.
  • Photobiology : The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.
  • Phrenology : The study of the faculties and qualities of minds from the shape of the skull.
  • Phthisiology : The scientific study of tuberculosis.
  • Phycology : The study of algae.
  • Physical Science : The study of natural laws and processes other than those peculiar to living matters, as in physics, chemistry and astronomy.
  • Physics : The study of the properties of matter.
  • Physiography : The science of physical geography.
  • Physiology : The study of the functioning of the various organs of living beings.
  • Phytogeny : The science dealing with origin and growth of plants.
  • Planetology : A study of the planets of the Solar System.
  • Pomology : The science that deals with fruits and fruit growing.
  • Psychology : The study of human and animal behaviour.
  • Radio Astronomy : The study of heavenly bodies by the reception and analysis of the radio frequency electro-magnetic radiations which they emit or reflect.
  • Radiobiology : The branch of biology which deals with the effects of radiations on living organlsms.
  • Radiology : The study of X-rays and radioactivity.
  • Rheology : The study of the deformation and flow of matter.
  • Seismology : The study of earthquakes and the phenomena associated with it.
  • Selenology : The scientific study of moon, its nature, origin, movement, etc.
  • Sericulture : The raising of silkworms for the production of raw silk.
  • Sociology : The study of human society.
  • Spectroscopy : The study of matter and energy by the use of spectroscope.
  • Statistics : The collection and analysis of numerical data.
  • Tectonics : Study of structural features of earth's crust.
  • Teleology : The study of the evidences of design or purpose in nature.
  • Telepathy : Communication between minds by some means other than sensory perception.
  • Therapeutics : The science and art of healing.
  • Topography : A special description of a part or region.
  • Toxicology : The study of poisons.
  • Virology : The study of viruses.
  • Zoogeography : The study of the geological distributions of animals.
  • Zoology : The study of animal life.
  • Zootaxy : Classification of animals.