Showing posts with label World. Show all posts
Showing posts with label World. Show all posts

Monday, April 11, 2011

Heads of Important Offices (World)

Ban Ki-moon : Secretary-General, United Nations Organisation.
Ms. Asha-Rose Migiro : First Deputy Secretary-General, UN.
Lt. Gen. Ahmad Shuja Pasha: Military Adviser to UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations.
Robert Zoellick : President, World Bank.
Dominic Strauss-Kahn: Managing Director, International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Irina Bokova: Director-General-UNESCO.
Dr. Margaret Chan: Director-General, WHO.
Jacques Diouf: Director-General, Food and Agricultural Organisation.
Juan Somavia : Director-General, International Labour Organisation.
Anthony Lake : Executive Director, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF).
Antonio Guterres : UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
Helen Clark : Administrator, United Nations Development Programme.
Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi : Secretary-General, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
Angel Gurria : Secretary-General, Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
Ms. Rosalyn Higgins: President, International Court of Justice.
Haruhiko Kuroda: President, Asian Development Bank.
Donald Kaberuka : President, African Development Bank.
Jacques Rogge: President, International Olympic Committee.
Kamalesh Sharma: Secretary-General, Commonwealth.
Harshvardhana Singh: Deputy Director-General, WTO.
Bingu Wa Mutharika : Chairman, African Union.
Pascal Lamy : Director-General, WTO.
Ms. Navanethan Pillay : High Commissioner, UN High Commission for Human Rights.
Jerzy Buzek : President, European Union
Sharad Pawar: President, International Cricket Council.
Hosni Mubarak: Secretary-General, Non-Aligned Movement.
Jose Manuel Durao Barroso: President, European Commission.
Kandeh K. Yumkella : Director-General, UNIDO.
Abdul-Rahman bin Hamad Al-Attiyah: Secretary-General, Gulf Co-operation Council.
Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu : Secretary-General, Organisation of Islamic Conference.
Abdallah Salem el-Badri: Secretary-General, Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
Jose Miguel Insulza Salinas: Secretary-General, Organisation of American States.
Hifikepunye Pohamba : President, South-West African People's Organisation (SWAPO).
Mr. Yukiya Amano : Director- General, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Anders Fogh Rasmussen : Secretary-General, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).
Dr. Abdul Waheed Khan: Director, Commonwealth of Learning.
Hashim Abdul Halim : Chairman, Commonwealth Parliamentary Association.
Ms. Thoraya Ahmed Obaid : Executive Director, UNFPA.
Dr. Surin Pitsuwan : Secretary-General, ASEAN.
Q. A. M. A. Rahim : Secretary-General, SAARC
Lamine Diack : President, International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF).
Michael Griffin : Chief of NASA (USA).
Salil Shetty: Secretary-General, Amnesty International.

First in the World

First in the World

1.Chairman of Peoples Republic of ChinaMao-Tse-Tung
2.President of the Chinese RepublicDr. Sun Yat Sen
 3.President of U.S.AGeorge Washington
 4.Chinese Traveller to IndiaFahein
 5.Foreign Invader to IndiaAlexander the Great
 6.Person to reach South PoleAmundsen
 7.Person to reach North PoleRobert Pearey
 8.Person in SpaceYuri Gagarin
 9.Person on MoonNeil Armstrong
 10.Lady to climb Mount EverestJunko Taibei
 11.European to visit ChinaMarco Polo
12.Place where atom bomb was droppedHiroshima
 13.Man to walk in SpaceAlexei Leonov
 14.Woman cosmonaut in SpaceValentina Tereshkova
 15.Woman Prime Minister of a countryMrs. Srimavo Bhandarnaike
16.Woman President of a countryMaria Estela Peron
 17.Woman to Command a Space MissionColonel Eileen Collins (U.S.A.)
 18.The first residents of International Space stationBill Shepherd (USA),
Yuri Gidzanko
and Sergei Krikalev (Russia)
 19. The first blind man to scale Mt. EverestErik Weihenmayer 
(USA, May 25, 2001)
20.The first Muslim woman to become the Secretary General of Amnesty Internationallrine Zubeida Khan
 21.The first space astronaut to go into space seven times till dateJerry Ross (U.S.A.)
 22.The first South African to become the second space touristMark Shuttleworth
 23.The first woman Prime Minister of South KoreaMs. Chang Sang
 24.The first youngest grandmaster of the world in chessSergey Karjakin (Ukraine)
 25.The first adventurer flying successfully across the English Channel without aircraftFelix Baumgartner (July 2003)
 26.China's first man in spaceYang Liwei
 27.The first Muslim woman to receive Nobel PrizeShirin Ebadi (Nobel Peace Prize 2003)
 28.The woman with the highest individual Test score making a new world recordKiran Baloch (Pakistani cricketer,
scoring 242 runs playing women's
cricket test against West Indies in
Karachi in March, 2004)
 29.The first woman of the world to climb Mt. Everest four timesLakpa Sherpa (Nepali)
30.The first woman to cross seven important seas of the world by swimmingBula Chaudhury (India)
31.The first aircraft pilot to round the entire world non-stop by his 2 engine aircraft in 67 hoursSteve Fossett (March 2005)
32.The first woman to be appointed as a Governor of a province in AfghanistanHabiba Sorabhi
33.The first woman of the world to swim across five continents Bula Chaudhury (India) (April 2005)
34.The first woman athlete to touch 5.0 meter mark in pole vaultMs. Yelena Isinbayeva 
(Russian, July 2005)
35.The first Hindu Chief Justice of Pakistani Supreme CourtJustice Rana Bhagwan Das
Took over on Sept. 2, 2005 as
Acting Chief Justice
36.The first duly elected woman President of an African countryAllen Johnson Sirleaf (elected
President of Liberia in Nov. 2005)
37.The first woman Governor of the State Bank of PakistanShanshad Akhtar 
(Appointed in Dec. 2005)
38.The first woman Chancellor of GermanyAngela Merkel 
(Took over in Nov. 2005)
39.The first woman President of ChileDr. Michelle Bachelet
40.The first woman Prime Minister of JamaicaPortia Simpson Miller (Feb. 2006)
41.The first woman foreign Secretary of EnglandMargaret Backett (May 2006)
42.The first double amputee to scale Mt. EverestMark Inglis (May 15, 2006)

Important Dates of World History

Building of the Great Pyramid.

First Olympiad in Greece.

Foundation of Rome.

Greeks defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon.

The period of Aristotle and Plato.

Egypt conquered by Alexander.

Alexander dies at Babylon.

Work on the Great Wall of China begins.

Julius Ceasar attacks Great Britain.

Birth of Jesus Christ.

Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

Huns' invasion of Europe.

Prophet Mohammed born at Mecca.

Flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Madina.

Death of Mohammed; Beginning of Hijiri Era.

Arabs invade Spain.

Norman invasion of England; Victory of William the Conquerer over the English King Harold II at Hastings.

Roger Bacon invents gunpowder.

The Hundred years War broke out.

English faces Black Death Plague.

Turks captured Constantinople; Renaissance in Europe.                                                                  

Discovery of America by Columbus.

Sea-route to India discovered by Vasco-de-Gama.

Spanish Armada defeated.

British East India Company established in India.

Execution of Charles I.

Monarchy restored in England.

The Great Plague of England.

Glorious Revolution in England.

Battle of Blenheim.

Union of England and Scotland.

Declaration of American Independence.

French Revolution; George Washington elected the first President of America.

Battle of Trafalagar and Nelson's death.

Battle of Waterloo; Napolean exiled to St. Helena.

Death of Napolean.

Reforms Bill passed in England.

Queen Victoria's accession to the throne of England.

Beginning of the American Civil War.

Slavery abolished in USA

Assassination of Abraham Lincoln.

Opening of the Suez Canal for traffic.

Roentgen discovered X-Rays.

Marconi invented wireless.

Russiao-Japan war.

Japan defeated Russia; Discovery of the theory of Relativity by Einstein.                                           

Chinese Revolution.

Republic of China established.

Beginning of World War I.

Russian Revolution.

End of World War I.

Treaty of Versailles signed.

Formation of the League of Nations.

Turkey declared Republic.

Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany.

Beginning of the Spanish Civil War.

World War II begins.

Russia invaded by Hitler; Pearl Harbour invaded by Japan.

Establishment of UNO; End of World War II; Hiroshima and Nagasaki experience the first dropping of the Atom Bomb; Death of President Roosevelt.

Civil War in China.

Burma and Ceylon get independence.

Indonesia gets independence; The Communists capture power in China.

General Eisenhower elected as the American President.

Death of Stalin; Mt. Everest conquered for the first time.

Military Aid Pact between China and Pakistan; Chou En-lai visits India.

Austria gets independence; Bandung Conference.

Suez Canal nationalised by President Nasser; Egypt attacked by the forces of Britain; France and Israel.

First artificial satellite launched by Russia.

Egypt and Syria united and renamed United Arab Republic (UAR)

Chinese capture Tibet; Dalai Lama flees to India; Sputnik launched by Russia.

Explosion of an atom bomb device by France; Election of John F. Kennedy as President of USA

Yuri Gagarin of USSR becomes the first spaceman.

Partial Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty signed; Malaysia established; John F. Kennedy assassinated.

Death of Sir Winston Churchill; Singapore becomes the sovereign independent nation; outbreak of Indo-Pak war.

Tashkent Pact; A Russian aircraft lands on moon.

Chinese explode hydrogen bomb; Arab-Israel War; Suez Canal closed.

Outbreak of Indo-Pak war; Birth of Bangladesh; Surrender of 93,000 Pakistani troops; Khruschev died; Z.A. Bhutto new President of Pakistan.

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman freed from Pakistani Jail and assumed the office of P.M. Bangladesh; Nixon of USA visited China; King Mahendra of Nepal died; USA and the USSR sign Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty.

Outbreak of fourth Arab-Israeli war; Fourth non-aligned summit in Algiers.

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, President of Bangladesh assassinated; King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, assassinated; Suez Canal reopened; Red Cross force Cambodia Government to Surrender.

Chou-En Lai, P.M. of China, died; Seychelles gets independence; Viking I lands on Mars; Mao Tse-tung died; Jimmy Carter elected President of USA

Agreement between Israel and Egypt; Vietnam attacked Cambodia; Z.A. Bhutto, former P.M. of Pakistan, sentenced to death; Bloody coup in Afghanistan; Mohammed Daoud assassinated; World's first test-tube baby born.

Chinese aggression in Vietnam; Cambodian rebels grab power in Pnom Penh; Mr. Z.A. Bhutto hanged; Mrs. Margaret Thatcher is the first woman P.M. of Britain.

War starts between Iran and Iraq; Ronald Reagon elected USA President.                                     

Falklands, captured by Argentina; Israel attacks South Lebanon; Argentina forces surrender to British; P.L.O. Chief Yesser Arafat leaves Beirut; Bashir Gemyel, the President elect of Lebanon, assassinated; Soviet President breathes his last.

US attacks Grenada; USA withdraws from UNESCO.

India gets Presidentship of UN Security Council; Soviet President, Mr. Konstantin Chernenko, dies; Vietnam withdraws troops from Kampuchia.

American air attack on Libya.

Nuclear tests by USSR; Fresh proposal by Gorbachev; Group 77 meet at Havana; Unsuccessful military coup in Philippines, Prime Minister of Lebanon killed.

WHO observes 7th of April as no smoking day, French President re-elected, Gen. Zia-ul-Haq killed in plane crash, Quake kills about 1,000 people in Bihar (India), George Bush elected President of USA, Arafat declares on independent state of Palestine, Nearly 1,00,000 people killed in earthquake in Armenia.

The UN Peace keeping force starts implementation of UN Resolution 435 for the independence of  Namibia.

The Panamanian President surrenders to the United States. South Africa lifts lean on African National Congress. Lithuania declares independence from the Soviet Union. Namibia becomes a free nation.
Iraq overruns Kuwait. East and West Germanys unite.

War breaks out in the Gulf, With the defeat of Iraq and freedom of Kuwait, Gulf war ends.

5 new members of security council START II treaty between Russian & US Presidents, Security Council resolution on Angola, Emergency in Zambia, Elections in Australia.

South Africa emerged from aparted regime with Nelson Mandela as its president. GATT treaty signed to create World Trade Organisation (WTO).

WTO comes into existence. Nuclear test by France. Balkan peace accord signed.

Kofi Annan new UN Secretary General. Clinton re-elected US President. India refuses to sign CTBT. Shekh Hasina Wajed new PM of Bangladesh. Taliban capture Kabul and execute former communist
President Najibullah.

Tony Blair back in power in UK. Mohd. Khatami elected president of Iran. Hong Kong goes back to China after 99 year British rule.

Indonesian President Suharto resigns. Pakistan test fires `Gauri' missile. US President Clinton faces impeachment.

G-15 Summit ends. Yugoslavia accepts a peace plan for Kosovo.

Thai commandor rescue 700 hostages from a capital Ratchabuh. India-China sign agreement on Information Technology, World Aids Day observed.

Goerge W. Bush, was sworn in as the 43rd President of the United States. Heritage destroy of Bamiyan Buddha in Afghanistan by Taliban. Massacred of Nepal Royal family. Terrorist attacks on America by Taliban Supremo Osama bin Laden.

`Euro' becomes the official currency of 12 European countries. A new nation East Timor came into existence. Switzerland and East Timor becomes the 190th & 191th member of the UN.

Germany, Spain, Pakistan, Chile and Angola take rotating two-year seats on the UN Security Council; Iraq and the UN sign a 10-point agreement to facilitate the work of disarmament monitors; India-born American astronaut Kalpana Chawla and six other crew of the STS-107 space shuttle mission were killed as the US space shuttle Columbia disintegrates over Texas; name of Yugoslavia has been changed, it became Serbia and Montenegro; Australia win ICC World Cup by defeating India, war between US and Iraq; International criminal court was launched. WTO ministerial conference held in Cancun. India and ASEAN signed three accord. Over 20,000 people are killed as a major earthquake
destroys the Iranian Fort city Bam.

India-Pakistan air links resume, the 12th SAARC Summit concludes in Islamabad after the signing of historic Agreement on Free Trade, Additional Protocol on Terrorism and Social Charter. NASA announced that it would name the spot where the robot probe Spirit landed successfully, in the memory of seven astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. The US declares Mr. Saddam Hussein a prisoner of war. Pakistan has been readjusted to the common wealth. United States hand over political authority to Iraq. The 28th Olympics start in Athens. Russian Parliament ratifics the Kyoto Protocol, Yasser Arafat dies in Paris. Taslima Nasreen awarded UNESCO tolerance and non-violence Prize.

India and Pakistan agree to allow travel by bus across the Line of Control between Srinagar and  Muzaffarabad, Microsoft founder, The U.S. Senate approves Michael d. Griffin as NASA chief, Kuwaiti Parliament grants women the right to vote and run in elections, Latvia ratifies E.U. Constitution, The sixth book by J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince, hits the stands worldwide, Junichiro Koizumi is reelected Japanese Premier by the new House of Representatives at a special session in Tokyo, The Dhaka Declaration decides to set up a SAARC poverty Alleviation Fund and to declare 2006-2015 the SAARC Decade of Poverty Alleviation, The Kyoto protocol on limiting pollution becomes fully operational, Evo Morales wins Bolivian presidential polls, The Galileo navigational telescope is launched from Kazakhstan.

SAFTA comes into effect. Sirleaf sworn in as Liberian president. Chile elected socialist Michelle Bachelet to be its first woman president. 18th CWG held in Melbourne (Australia). UNO passed a resolution for new Human Rights Council. UN General Assembly has approved Ban-Ki-Moon as the new Secretary General. North Korea conducted an underground Nuclear test. 15th Asian Games were held in Doha (Qatar) in December 2006.

Bangladesh declares a state of emergency. Nepal's Parliament unanimously approves the interim Constitution. 14th SAARC Summit held in New Delhi (India). Australia won the World Cup Cricket tournament, 2007. G-8 Summit held in Heilligendamm, Berlin (Germany). Viktor Zubkov has been appointed as a new Prime Minister of Russia. Yasuo Fukuda was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Japan. India won the Twenty-20 World Cup Cricket Championship over Pakistan in South Africa. Nobel
Prize 2007 has ben announced.

Important Personalities in History

Important Personalities in History

Abbas the GreatPersia
Akbar the GreatIndia
Alexander the GreatGreece (Macedon)
Adolf HitlerGermany
Abraham LincolnU.S.A.
A.O. HumeEngland
(served in India)
AristotleGreece (Athens)
Albert EinsteinU.S.A.
(born Germany)
Alfred Bernhard NobelSweden
Benito MussoliniItaly
Benjamin DisraeliBritain
Bertrand RussellBritain
Clement AttleeBritain
Catherine the GreatRussia
Chandra GuptaIndia
Chiang Kai-ShekChina
Chou En-laiChina
Christopher ColumbusItaly
Christian N. BarnardSouth Africa
C. RichelieuFrance
Charles R. DarwinBritain
Dwight EisenhowerU.S.A.
Elizabeth I and IIBritain
Edmund HillaryNew Zealand
Fidel CastroCuba
Frederick the GreatPrussia
F. D. RooseveltU.S.A.
Florence NightingaleBritain
Guiseppe GaribaldiItaly
Genghis KhanMongolia
G. MazziniItaly
Gamal Abdel NasserEgypt
George WashingtonU.S.A.
HerodotusGreece(born Persia)
Hugo GrotiusHolland
Issac NewtonBritain
Immanuel Kant
James CookBritain
Julius CaesarRome
John F. KennedyU.S.A.
Jesus ChristBethlehem
Joseph P. GoebbelsGermany
Joseph StalinU.S.S.R.
John Stuart MillBritain
Jean Jacques RousseauFrance
Karl MarxGermany
(later settled in London)
Leon TrotskyRussia
Loius XIVFrance
L. V. BeethovenGermany
Le CorbusierSwitzerland
Leo N. TolstoyRussia
Mark AntonyRome
Muhammed Ali JinnahPakistan
(born India)
Martin Luther KingU.S.A.
Martin LutherGermany
Mao Tse-tungChina
Marco PoloItaly (Venice)
Muhammed, ProphetArabia
Marshal J. B. TitoYugoslavia
Marie CurieFrance
Nevile ChamberlainBritain
Napoleon BonaparteFrance
Nicolas CopernicusPoland
Neil ArmstrongU.S.A.
N. MachiavelliItaly
Oliver CromwellBritain
Omar KhayyamPersia
Prince Otto Von BismarckGermany
Pablo PicassoSpain
PlatoGreece (Athens)
Sigmund FreudAustria
Thomas JeffersonU.S.A.
Thomas MalthusBritain
Vladimir LeninRussia
Vasco da GamaPortugal
Winston ChurchilBritain
Woodrow WilsonU.S.A.
Walt DisneyU.S.A.
William PittBritain
William ShakespeareBritain
Yuri GagarinRussia
Yehudi MenuhinU.S.A.

Important Battles

Important Battles
BattlePeriod/YearCountries Involved
Battle of Megiddo608 BCNecho of Egypt and Josiah of Judah; Egyptians victorious
Battle of Marathon490 BCAthenians and Persians; King Darius of Persia defeated.
Battle of Thermoplyae480 BCSpartans led by Leonidas and Persians by Xerxes; Spartans were defeated.
Battle of Salamis480 BCAthenian and Persian fleet in the Bay of Salamis; Persian fleet defeated
Battle of Platae479 BCGreek and Persian forces; Persian forces defeated
Battle of Mycale479 BCGreek and Persian forces; Persian fleet defeated
Spartan War II 459 BCSparta and Athens, also called 'Pelponesian War'; it lasted for 30 years
Spartan War II431–421 BCSparta and Athens; Spartans victorious
Battle of Arabia331 BCGreek and Persian forces; Greeks victorious
Battle of Magnesia190 BCSyrian and Roman forces; Syrian forces defeated (north-west Lydia)
Hundred Year War1338–1453France and England
War of Roses1455–1485Civil War in England between the two rival royal houses of Lancaster and York; White and red rose were their respective symbols
Anglo-Spanish War1588Spanish and English fleets fought in the English Channel; Defeat of the Spanish fleet
Thirty Year War1618–1648Started as religious-cum-political war between (Conto) the Lutherans and Catholics in Germany and developed into an international war
Civil War of England1642–1649Between Cavaliers (King Charles supporters) and forces of the Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell; King Charles I executed
Battle of Gibraltar Bay1607The Dutch defeated the Spaniards and the Portuguese
Seven Year War1756–1763Britain and France against Austria and Prussia; British alliance won
Battle of Nile1798British and French fleets; Britain victorious
Battle of Trafalgar1805British fleet defeated fleets of France and Spain; British fleets commanded by Admiral Nelson, who was killed in the battle
Battle of Austerlitz1805Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia on one side and France on the other; French on the other; French forces victorious
Battle of  Borodino1812France and Russia; the French forces were commanded by Napoleon who was defeated
Battle of Leipzig1813Germany and combined forces of Austria, Prussia and Russia defeated Napoleon (French forces)
Battle of Waterloo1815British forces led by Duke of Wellington defeated French forces led by Napoleon Bonaparte; it was Napoleon's last battle; Napoleon was abdicated and was exiled to the island of St Helena in South Atlantic where he died in 182l.
First China War1840China and Britain; Chinese forces yielded. It was a trade war and also known as the 'Opium War'
American Civil War1861–1865Northern Vs. Southern states of America for the abolition of slavery; Abraham Lincoln defeated the Southern states
Russo–Japan War1905Russia and Japan in the Sea of Japan; Russia defeated; also called the 'Battle of Port Arthur' or 'Battle of Yalu'
Balkan War I1912Turkey and Balkan countries (Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece); Turkey defeated
Balkan War II1913Invasion of Serbia and Greece by Bulgaria; Bulgaria defeated by combined forces of Serbia, Greece, Romania, Montenegro, which stripped Turkey of most of its European territories
World War I1914–1919Germany (with Austria, Hungary and Turkey) against Britain (with France, US, Russia, Japan, Canada, Austria and Belgium); Germany and its allies were defeated
Battle of Jutland1916During World War I–naval battle between Germany and England in which Germany was defeated
World War I1939–45Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) against the Allies (Britain, USSR, US, France and several other countries); Axis powers were defeated
Desert War1942Italian Army from Libya invaded Egypt in order to attack British forces
Korean War1954South Korea invaded by North Korea; North Korea was forced back by UN forces
Israel-Arab War1967Six-day war, shortest war in history; Arab forces led by Egypt, Syria and Jordan were defeated
Pakistan-Bangladesh War1971Mukti Bahini forces aided by India against the Pakistani forces stationed in Bangladesh (former East Pakistan); Pakistani forces surrendered and Bangladesh came into being
Gulf War1991US led multinational forces attacked Iraq to oust Iraqi troops from Kuwait
Kargil War1999India defeated Pakistani forces at Kargil
US-Afghanistan War2001US led coalition forces attack Afghanistan to bring down the Taliban regime in Afghanistan in retaliation to the September 11 terrorist attack in the USA
Gulf War II2003US led coalition forces dethroned the Iraqi President Saddam Hussein

Revolutions and Wars of Independence

American War of Independence
Great Britain regulated trade in the American colonies to such a great extent that there was growing annoyance among the settlers at the controls and checks imposed upon them. There were acts of rebellion and this hostility flared into war on 19 April, 1775; when shots were exchanged in Lexington.

The first battle of the war was fought at Bunker Hill Charlestown in which Britain won; they also scored decisive victories in New York (1776) and Philadelphia (1777). But the American Continental Congress had appointed George Washington (1732-99) to take charge of the untrained American soldiers and he inspired them to fight for their freedom. Further inspiration was provided on 4 July, 1776 when the Congress issued the Declaration of Independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration renounced allegiance to the British throne and resolved "that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.'' Americans were aided in their fight by Britain's enemies in Europe and in 1777 the British general Burgoyne (1723-92) was forced to surrender at Saratoga.

In 1781 General Cornwallis (1738-1805) besieged at Yorktown by French ships which prevented aid from reaching him by sea, surrendered and the War of Independence ended. America was granted its independence in 1783 and George Washington was elected the first President of USA.

Boston tea party – It is an incident related to the War of Independence in America when settlers in colonies threw a shipment of 342 chests of tea into the sea at Boston in 1773. To suppress the agitation, the colony of Massachusetts was brought under direct control of the Crown.

Greek War of Independence
The Turkish empire included south-east Europe and the Middle East. The Greeks were the first people to revolt against the Turks in 1821.

Russians supported the Greeks, Britain and France also joined in supporting the Greeks in 1827. All three countries joined together to destroy the Turkish empire and the Turks were forced to yield. The Greeks achieved independence in 1830.

Belgian War of Independence (1830)
When the Dutch gained independence in the late sixteenth century, the southern provinces of the Netherlands (roughly equal to modern Belgium) remained under the rule of Spain, and later Austria. During the Napoleonic, wars they were overrun by the French and when Napoleon was defeated in 1814 Belgium was reunited with the Netherlands as one kingdom.

The union with the Dutch was not accepted in Belgium. Although the two peoples had much in common, problems arose out of differences in religion, language and social customs. Under the Dutch king the Belgians, felt that they were being regarded as second-class citizens. This led to riots against Dutch rule in 1830 and quickly developed into a full-scale mass revolution.

The Belgians declared their independence in 1830 and drew up a national Constitution in 1831 inviting Leopold of Saxe-Coburg (1790-1865) to become their first king.

French Revolution (1789-1793)
In the 18th century France was under the despotic rule of King Louis XVI, who was not only inexperienced but also weak, feeble and lacked administrative capabilities. He believed in the Theory of Divine Right of Kings. At the time French society consisted of nobles, clergy and the commoners. Nobles belonged to the highly privileged class and enjoyed special rights. As one-fifth of the land was the property of the church, the clergy monopolized offices of the church and led a luxurious life. The commoners were isolated as the most under-privileged class which comprised peasants in villages, workers in cities and middle-class government employees.

The commoners were awakened by French philosopher of the time who attacked the church, the crown, and old traditions, of despotic rule. Montesquieu (1689-1755) who was dead against the Divine Right Theory of kings; Volatire (1664-1774) who exposed the tyranny and arbitrary practices of the King, abuses of the Church and social inequalities; Rousseau (1712-1778), were the 18h century philosophers of France, who through their writings and ideologies of liberty, equality and fraternity prepared the nation for this great revolution in France.

French Revolution not only made France a Republic but also gave new direction to the oppressed people of other countries, helped advocated and furthered the cause of liberty, fraternity and equality by awakening people against despotic rulers in their countries.

Russian Revolution (1917-1922)
The great revolution in Russia took place in two stages. The first stage of the Russian Revolution began in February 1917 with the overthrow of the Czar Nicholas II. The second stage in October of the same year led to the establishment of the world's first communist state by the Bolsheviks under Lenin.

Revolution Russia joined the Allies in World War I to 1914, and met with success in the beginning but was defeated in 1915-16 with over 5.5 million casualties in 2.5 years of war. This led to shortage of war material and food which thoroughly frustrated the soldiers.

On 7 March, 1917, workers struck work and attacked Petrograd. Farmers revolted to villages and the frustrated soldiers of World War I joined the general public to revolt against the Czar. Riots broke out and lawlessness spread throughout Russia. The Czar was dethroned and a temporary government set up under prince Kerensky's leadership. Kerensky was the follower of a midway policy (Mensheviks group) but people wanted definite social and economic changes.

Lenin who was deeply influenced by the principles of Karl Marx took over leadership of the Bolshevik party which wished to setup a common government. The unity of labourers and peasants under the leadership of Lenin made the revolution a success.

Lenin emerged as a great revolutionary leader; Czar Nicholas II and his family were assassinated, power came into the hands of the public, and landlords, traders and the clergy were reduced to destitution. The Russian revolution set up a new society on the basis of communist principles and thus the great revolution came to an end.

This was a great revolution after the French revolution (1789-93) which was not limited to Russia alone but affected almost all countries of the world. It established the ideology of Marxism and led to the independence of several countries.

Chinese Revolution
The Manchu Dynasty was overthrown and a republic proclaimed in October 1911. First President Sun Yat-Sen resigned in favour of strongman Yuan Shih-Kai. Sun organized the Parliamentarian `Kuomintany' Party. Students launched protests on 4 May, 1919 against League of Nations concessions in China to Japan. Nationalist, liberal and socialist ideas and political groups spread. The Communist Party was founded in 1921. An Communist regime took power in Mongolia with Soviet support in 1921.

Algerian War of Independence (1947-62)
In 1947 Algeria became politically unified with France but the 86 percent Muslim population (Arabs and Berber) revolted against French domination and in 1954 war broke out. French deployed half a million troops against the rebels, but instead of suppressing the revolution, troops supported the agitation and it turned into a sort of civil war. General De Gaulle was called upon and he ultimately planned the Algerian independence which was achieved in 1962.

Creation of Bangladesh
Elections in Pakistan in 1970 resulted in a split between the Punjabis of West Pakistan and the Bengalis of East Pakistan. By March 1971 the tension between the two groups had escalated. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920-75) of East Pakistan and his separatist party the Awami League launched a civil disobedience movement and called for independence from Pakistan's rule. On Pakistan's Republic Day (March 23) people dragged down its national flag and unfurled the flag of Bangladesh. Severe fighting took place between the separatist (Mukti Bahini) and Pakistan's forces stationed in East Pakistan. Mujibur Rahman was charged with treason. However, formal independence was declared on 17 April, 1971 and fierce fighting continued in which India supported the separatist group. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was nominated President of Bangladesh while in jail and returned to Bangladesh in January 1972 to a tumultuous welcome. He was, however, assassinated in 1975.

Collapse of the Soviet Empire
In 1985 President Gorbachov inherited a collapsing empire. Constricted by domestic pressures, he chose not to intervene when, in a few dramatic months of late 1989 and early 1990, communist governments of Eastern Europe collapsed under popular pressure and new regimes declared themselves independent of Soviet control. The tearing down of the Berlin Wall, and subsequent reunification of Germany was the most powerful symbol of change. The situation was little better in the republics which constituted the Soviet Union. The people were increasingly disillusioned by falling living standards and inefficient government. Powerful nationalists forces, from the southern republics of Armenia to Azerbaijan to the old Baltic States in the north, now threatened to break up the Soviet Union from within. In August 1991 an attempt by communist `hard-liners' to restore the old system in a coup d'etat failed, leaving the central Soviet government stripped of any real power. As one republic after another announced succession it was quickly clear that the world possessed another `sick man'<197>with all the attendant dangers. The collapse of Soviet Union signaled the end of superpower confrontation.

World War II (1939-45)

World War II (1939-45)

(1) By the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I, Germany was not only dismembered, disarmed but also himiliated, and very exacting conditions were imposed
upon her. (2) There was strong feeling of deep social discontentment in Germany and Italy after the War. (3) The rise of the Nationalist movement in Germany and Italy; and the growing power of the Nazis under Hitler and that of the Fascists under Mussolini seriously upset the balance of power in Europe. (4) The colonial and commercial rivalry between England and France on one side, Germany and Italy on the other, brought them into conflict with each other. (5) Germany had become very aggressive, she annexed the Saar Valley, occupied Rhineland and Austria : Captured Czechoslovakia, etc.

The immediate causes were that Germany gave an ultimatum to Poland regarding (i) surrender of the Port of Danzing, (ii) the right of establishing rail link between Germany and East Prussia, through the Polish Corridor. These two demands were rejected by Poland, so Germany invaded Poland on 1st September, 1939. Britain and France as
they were under treaty obligations to aid Poland, declared war against Germany on 3rd September, 1939. Germany, Italy and Japan, called the Axis Powers, fought on one side;
U.K., U.S.S.R., France, U.S.A., Benelux countries, etc., called the Allies, fought on the other. It ended on 14th August, 1945.

World War I (1914-18)

World War I (1914-18)
(1) Germany has become a great industrial country and wanted to have more markets for trade. (2) Germany was jealous of the colonial and naval greatness of England. William II, Kaiser of Germany, was very ambitious and wanted to gain influence in Turkey by linking Berlin with Baghdad by a railway line. This gave rise to great rivalry between England and Germany. (3) The immediate cause of the war the murder of Archduke Ferdinand (the
heir to the throne of the Austrian Empire) at Serajevo by a Serbian. The Austrian held the Government of Serbia responsible for the murder and ultimately attacked Serbia.

Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria were on one side and, were called Central Powers. England, France, Serbia, Belgium, Japan, Russia were on the other side,
and were called the Allies. Italy in 1915 and the U.S.A. in 1917 joined the Allies against the Central Powers.

The war started on the 4th August, 1914 and ended on 11th November,1918.

World Civilizations

World Civilizations
Egyptian Civilization
It is one of the world's longest continuous civilizations. In 300 BC Upper and Lower Egypt were united, 
beginning a period of cultural glory and native rulers that lasted nearly 3,000 years. Historians have divided the history of Egypt into the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms, spanning 31 dynasties and lasting to 322 BC. The highlight of the Old Kingdom was the building of the pyramids of Giza. The Middle kingdom saw Egypt develop into a great power. Massive temples and tombs, such as Tutenkhamun's were built during the New Kingdom.

Another classification is the pyramid age (3490-2500 BC), the Feudal Age (about 1800 BC), the New
Empire (about 1150 BC). In the fourth and third millennium, the Pharaohs held supreme power. The Egyptians studied nature with great care. They were aware of five planets. They divided the day-night cycle into twelve hours. They also developed a system of writing called hieroglyphics.
Mesopotamian Civilization
Mesopotamia was the ancient region between Tigris and Euphrates in South-West Asia, roughly corresponding to modern Iraq. It was the site of one of the earliest human civilizations, resulting from the
development of irrigation in the 6th millennium BC and the extreme fertility of the irrigated land.

Sumerians settled in the lower parts of Tigris and Euphrates valley between 5000 and 4000 BC. Its seat
was the city of Mesopotamia, founded by the Sumerians Babylonia gained supremacy in the 18th Century BC and was followed by others, notably the Assyrians. Later ruled by the Persians Greek and Romans,
Mesopotamia gradually lost its distinctive cultural traditions.

Mesopotamia bears the stamp of clay as does no other civilization, and nowhere in the world but in
Mesopotamia and the regions over which its influence was diffused was clay used as the vehicle for writing. They also created mythological and historical epics like the famous 'Creation' and 'Flood Epics'. The most impressive work of the Babylonians is the 'Epic of Gilgamesh' containing their main myths.

Chinese Civilization
The first documented dynasty was the Shang (c. 1523-c. 1020 BC), when bronze casting was perfected.
The Zhou dynasty (c. 1030-221 BC) was the age of Chinese Classical Literature, in particular Confucian
and Lao Tzu. China was unified by Qin Shihuangdi, whose tomb near Xlan contains the famous terracotta
army. The majority of the great wall was built by the Qin dynasty (221-206 BC). The Ran dynasty established in 206 BC and ruled until AD 220. The Ran dynasty developed the empire, a bureaucracy based on Confucianism, and also introduced Buddhism. China then split into three kingdoms (Wei, Shu and Wu). Tang dynasty (618-907) was a golden era of artistic achievement, especially in poetry and fine art.

Genghis Khan conquered most of China in the 1210s and established the Mongol empire. Kubla
Khan founded the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368), a period of dialogue with Europe. The Ming dynasty
(1368-1644) restablished Chinese rule and is famed for its fine porcelain. The Manchu Qing dynasty
(1644-1912) began by vastly extending the empire.
Greek Civilization
The earliest urban society in Greece was the palace-centered Minoan civilization. It reached its
height on Crete c. 2000 BC. It was succeeded by the mainland Mycenaen civilization, which arose
c. 1600 BC following a wave of Indo-European invasions. A second wave of invasions in c. 1200 BC, destroyed the Bronze Age cultures, paving the way for a dark age. Classical Greece began to emerge (c. 750 BC) as a collection of independent city-states including Sparta and Athens.

The civilization reached its heights, after repelling the Persians at the beginning of the 5thcentury
BC and began to decline after the civil strife of the Peloponnesian war. The Greek city-states were taken
over by Philip II of Macedon in 388 BC. Greek culture was spread by Philip's son Alexander the Great
throughout his empire. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans conquered Greek city-states.

The Greeks were the first political scientists and democrats in the world. Greece occupies a great place in the history of world civilization. The outstanding philosophers like Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were the products of this civilization. The Greeks also built many temples. Homer's 'Iliad' and 'The Odyssey' are also Greece's great gifts to the world.
Roman Civilization
Rome is situated on the river Tiber in Italy. Etruscan traders occupied this city and made it the largest and most important cities of central Italy. Between 338 and 169 B.C., the Romans dominated the
Mediterranean world. Between 167 B.C. and 14A.D. much of the land was conquered, the republic was brought to an end and the Roman Empire was established. The rise of Caesar is a remarkable event in the Roman history. After Caesar, Octavian brought the republic to an end.

The ancient Romans worshipped their family deities. Galen, a physician, completed an encyclopedia of medicine. Caesarian Operation, first tried at the birth of Caesar became popular. In the fourth century after Christ, Theodosius made Christianity the religion of the state.

Landmarks in World History

Magna Carta

The Magna Carla was a Charter of Rights granted to the Englishmen during 1215 AD by King John II. During the reign of King John II (1167-1216) the citizens of Britain were burdened with heavy taxes. As a treacherous and cruel king he curbed the privileges of nobles and clergymen. As a result the barons, clergy and the common people united and compelled King John to redress their grievances by signing the Great Charter known as the
Magna Carta. It was signed by King John II in June 1215 at Runnymede. The charter contained 63 clauses guaranteeing the freedom of the barons, the church and the common
man. Under this charter the king himself was to act according to the law which curbed the king's right to levy taxes arbitrarily. It ensured that the king would act with the sanction of the people's representatives in the matters of administration be it the imposition of new taxes or punishing a wrong doer or imprisonment of any man. In other words, through this document the Law was made the highest authority in the land. The Magna Carta laid down the important principle that England should be governed by a definite law and not by the whims or will of a despotic ruler.
Feudalism was apolitical and economic system of medieval Europe based on the relation of lord to vassal in which land was held on the condition of homage and service. A lord would promise to protect a smaller landowner from his enemies. In return, the small landowner or peasant surrendered his land and became a vassal. In 888 AD big empires were divided into small kingdoms of landowning nobles who protected peasants against tribal attacks. Peasants surrendered their lands to the nobles for protection of their lives. They were allowed to work and live on it but the land became feudal property. Feudal
lords became rich and powerful and kings had to depend on them for men and money.

Renaissance means revival or rebirth. During the time of the Roman empire all the manuscripts containing the wisdom of the ancient Greeks were kept in Constantinople and studied by the scholars of the city. However, in 1451 AD a new Sultan, Mahomet II ascended the Turkish throne and swore to capture Constantinople (now Istanbul). In 1453 he attacked and occupied the city. The scholars fled taking with them the manuscripts
and documents and settled in the cities of Italy to spread their learning throughout western Europe. In 1454, Gutenberg set up a printing press and these manuscripts and documents were reprinted, and thus astronomy, geography and other sciences were rediscovered by
western Europe. A Greek copy of the New Testament (Part of the Bible) was also found, which revolutionized the process of religious reform in Europe. The Renaissance has been called therevival of learning that swept across Europe. The movement slowly spread to England in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
The Habeas Corpus Act was drawn up during the reign of King Charles II which stated that no one was to be imprisoned without a writ or warrant stating the charges against him. It also provided facilities to a prisoner to obtain either speedy trial or release on bail. The Act safeguarded the personal liberties of the people against arbitrary imprisonment by the king's orders.
Glorious Revolution
King James II of England, became very unpopular due to his strong Catholic beliefs. As a result he was forced to flee to France. The government invited William of Orange (1650-1702) the Dutch leader and his wife Mary, daughter of King James II, and declared them joint sovereigns on 13 February, 1689. The overthrowing of James II was without any bloodshed and is thus known as the Glorious Revolution.