Showing posts with label india. Show all posts
Showing posts with label india. Show all posts

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Indian History At a Glance

Indian History At a Glance

Indus Valley Civilisation.

Birth of Mahavir—Founder of Jainism.

Birth of Gautam Buddha—Founder of Buddhism.

Buddha attains Nirvana.

Mahavir attains Nirvana.

Alexander's invasion of India.

Chandragupta Maurya's accession to the throne of Magadha.

Defeat of Seleucus at the hands of Chandragupta Maurya.

Ashoka's regime

Conquest of Kalinga.

Beginning of Vikram Era.
Beginning of Saka Era.

Accession of Kanishka.

Beginning of Gupta Dynasty.

Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien visited India.

Harsha Vardhan's regime.

Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited India.

Mohammad-bin-Qasim's invasion of Sindh.

Mahmud Gazhni's first attack on India.

Mahmud Gazhni destroyed Somnath Temple.

First Battle of Tarain.

Second Battle of Tarain.

Foundation of first Muslim Dynasty in India by Qutub-ud-din Aibak.

First Mongol invasion of India by Changez Khan

Accession of Razia Sultan to the throne of Delhi.

Taimur Lang invaded India.

Birth of Guru Nanak—Founder of Sikhism.

Discovery of sea-route of India by Vasco-de-Gama, Portuguese

First Battle of Panipat, Ibrahim Lodi defeated by Babar, foundation of Mughal rule in India.

Second Battle of Panipat, Hemu defeated by Akbar and latter's
accession to the throne.

Battle of Haldighati, Rana Pratap was defeated by Akbar.   

Establishment of East India Company.

Death of Akbar.

First English factory at Surat.

Birth of Shivaji—Founder of Maratha Power.

Taj Mahal completed at Agra.

Shivaji's visit to the Mughal Court at Agra, his imprisonment and dramatic escape.

Death of Shivaji.

Death of Aurangzeb.

Nadir Shah of Persia invaded India.

Battle of Plassey.

Third Battle of Panipat.

Battle of Buxar.

Regulating Act.

Birth of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Pitt's India Bill.

Permanent settlement of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

Macaulay recommended English as the medium of instruction in India.

Death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

First railway line opened in India from Bombay to Thana.

First Battle of Indian Independence.

End of East India Company's rule; administration of India transferred to the British Crown.

Indian Councils Act; Rabindranath Tagore born.

Birth of Swami Vivekanand.

Birth of Mahatma Gandhi.

Indian National Congress founded by A.O. Hume.                

Birth of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

First Partition of Bengal.

All India Muslim League founded.

Morely-Minto Reforms Bills passed.

Partition of Bengal revoked; India's Capital transferred from Calcutta to Delhi.

1919Government of India Act Passed; Jallianwala Bagh massacre at Amritsar.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak died; Non-Co-operation Movement started
by Mahatma Gandhi-Khilafat Movement started by Ali Brothers.

Chauri Chaura outrage in U.P.

Visit of Simon Commission.

Death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

Under the Presidentship of Pt. Nehru at Lahore session of Congress, a resolution for complete independence passed.

Mahatma Gandhi takes up Dandi March; First Round Table Conference in London.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact; Second Round Table Conference.

Communal Award announced; Gandhiji declares fast unto death
against the award.

Government of India Act passed.

Provincial Autonomy.

Death of Rabindranath Tagore; escape of Subhash Chandra
Bose from India.

Quit India Movement.

Bengal famine; Indian National Army formed at Singapore by Subhash Chandra Bose.

Trial of I.N.A. at Red Fort; Shimla Conference.

Visit of Cabinet Mission to India; Formation of Interim Government at the Centre.

India attains independence; Partition of India & creation of Pakistan.

Indian National Movement

Indian National Movement

The East India Company had established its control over almost all parts of India by the middle of the 19th century. There were numerous risings in the first hundred years of British rule in India. They were, however, local and isolated in character. Some of them were led by the nobility who were refusing to accept the changing patterns of the time and wanted the past to be restored. But the risings developed a tradition of resistance offoreign rule, culminating in the 1857 revolt. 
The Revolt of 1857, which was called a Sepoy Mutiny by British historians and their imitators in India but described as "the First War of Indian Independence" by many Indian historians, shook the British authority in India from its very foundations.
The Revolt of 1857, an unsuccessful but heroic effort to eliminate foreign rule, had begun. The capture of Delhi and the proclamation of Bahadurshah as the Emperor of Hindustan are a positive meaning to the Revolt and provided a rallying point for the rebels by recalling the past glory of the imperial city.
On May 10, 1857, soldiers at Meerut refused to touch the new Enfield rifle cartridges. The soldiers along with other group of civilians, went on a rampage shouting 'Maro Firangi Ko'. They broke open jails, murdered European men and women, burnt their houses and marched to Delhi. The appearance of the marching soldiers next morning in Delhi was a'signal to the local soldiers, who in turn revolted, seized the city and proclaimed the 80-year old Bahadurshah Zafar, as Emperor of India.
 Within a month of the capture of Delhi, the Revolt spread to the different parts of the country. Kanpur, Lucknow, Benaras,  Allahabad, Bareilly, Jagdishpur and Jhansi. In the absence of any leader from their own ranks, the insurgents turned to the traditional leaders of Indian society. At Kanpur, NanaSaheb, the adopted son of last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, led the forces. Rani Lakshmi Bai in Jhansi, Begum Hazrat Mahal in Lucknow and .Khan Bahadur in Bareilly were in command. However, apart from a commonly shared hatred for alien rule, the rebels had no political perspective or a definite vision of the future. They were all prisoners of their own past, fighting primarily to regain their lost privileges. Unsurprisingly, they proved incapable of ushering in a new political order. 
Government of India Act 1858
Queen Victoria issued a proclamation on November 1, 1858, placing India under direct government of the Crown, whereby:
(a) A viceroy was appointed in India
(b) Princes were given the right to adopt a son (abolition of Doctrine of Lapse)
(c) Treaties were honoured
(d) Religious freedom was restored and equality treatment promised to Indians
 The Proclamation was called the 'Magna Carta of Indian Liberty'. The British rule in India was strongest between 1858 and 1905. The British also started treating India as its most precious possession and their rule over India seemed set to continue for centuries to come. Because of various subjective and objective factors which came into existence during this era, the feeling of nationalism in Indians started and grow.
Indian National Congress (1885)
Although the British succeeded in suppressing the 1857 Revolt, they could not stop the growth of political awareness in India. The Indian National Congress was founded in December 1885. It was the visible embodiment of the national awakening in the country. Its founder was an Englishman, Allan Octavian Hume, a retired member of the Indian Civil Service. The Indian leaders, who cooperated with Hume in launching the Congress, were patriots of high character. The first President of the Congress was W.C. Bannerjee. 
The aims of the Congress were: promotion of friendship and cooperation amongst the nationalist political workers from the different parts of the country; the eradication of racial, creed or provincial prejudices and promotion of national unity; formulation of popular demands and their presentation before the Government; and, most important of all, the training and organisation of public opinion in the country.
Partition of Bengal (1905)
On December 30, 1898, Lord Curzon took over as the new Viceroy of India. The partition of Bengal came into effect on October 16, 1905, through a Royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating a new province of East Bengal, which later on became East Pakistan and present day Bangladesh. The government explained that it was done to stimu­late growth of underdeveloped eastern region of the Bengal. But, actually, the main objective was to 'Divide and Rule' the most advanced region of the country at that time.

Muslim League (1906)
In 1906, All India Muslim League was set up under the leader­ship of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimul­lab of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. The League supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi Movement, and demanded special safegurds for its community and a separate elec­torates of Muslims. This led to communal differences between Hindus and Muslims.

Swadeshi Movement (1905)
The Swadeshi movement has its genesis in the anti-partition move­ment which was started to oppose the British decision to divide Bengal. With the start of the Swadeshi movement at the turn of the century, the Indian National Movement took a major leap forward.
The Indian National Congress took up the Swadeshi call in Benaras Session, 1905, presided over by G.K. Gokhale, supported the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement of Bengal, Militant Nationalism spearheaded by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, and Aurobindo Ghosh was, however, in favour of extending the movement of the rest of India and carrying it beyond the programme of just Swadeshi and boycott of goods to full-fledged political mass struggle.
Morley-Minto Reforms (1909)
Morley-Minto Reforms were introduced in 1909 during the period when Lord Minto was the Governor­General of India. The reforms envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims besides other constitutional measures. The government thereby sought to create a rift within the Congress on the one hand by winning the support of the moderates,
and on the other, to win favour of Muslims against Bindus. To achieve the latter objective, the reforms introduced the system of separate electorates under which Muslims could only vote for Muslim candidates. This was done to encourage the notion that the political, economic and cultural interests of Hindus and Muslims were separate and not common. Indian political leaders were however dissatisfied by these reforms.
Lucknow Pact (1916)
An important step forward in achieving Hindu-Muslim unity was the Lucknow Pact 1916. Anti­British feelings were generated among the Muslims following a war between Britain and Turkey which opened way for Congress and Mus­lim League unity. Both the Con­gress and the Muslim League held sessions at Lucknow in 1916 and concluded the famous Lucknow Pact. The Congress accepted the separate electorates, and both organizations jointly demanded dominion status for the country.
 Hindu-Muslim unity weakened the British attitude and forced the government to announce its future policy. In 1916 a British policy was announced whereby association of Indians was increased and there was to be a gradual development of local self-governing institutions.
Home Rule Movement (1915­1916)
Dr. Annie Besant, inspired by the Irish rebellion, started a Home Rule Movement in India in September 1916. The movement spread rapidly and branches of the Rome Rule League were established all over India. Bal Gangadhar Tilak wholeheartedly supported this movement. Rejoined forces with Dr. Besant and persuaded the Muslim League to support this programme.

The Gandhian Era (1918-1947)
Mahatma Gandhi dominated the Indian political scene from 1918­1947. This period of the Indian National Congress is also referred to as the Gandhian Era. It was the most
intense and eventful phase of India's freedom struggle. Mahatma Gandhi provided the leadership of the highest order and his philosophy of non-violent Satyagraha became the most potent weapon to drive out .the British from the Indian soil.
Khilafat Movement (1920)
The Caliph, Sultan of Turkey, was looked upon by the Muslims as their religious head. During the First World War, when the safety and the welfare of Turkey were threatened by the British thereby weakening the Caliph's position, Indian Muslims adopted an aggressive anti-British attitude. The two brothers, Mohammed Ah and Shaukat Ali launched an anti­British movement in 1920-the Khilafat Movement for the restoration.

The Rowlatt Act (1919)
While trying to appease Indians, the British Government was following a policy of repression. Throughout the First World War, repression of freedom fighters had continued. The revolutionaries had been hunted down, hanged or im­prisoned. The Government now decided to arm itself with more powers in order to suppress the freedom fighters. In March 1919, it passed the Rowlatt Act. This Act authorised the government to detain any person without trial. The Rowlatt Act came like a sudden blow. The Indians had been promised extension of democracy during the war. They felt humiliated and were filled with anger when they found that their civil liberties were going to be curtailed still further. Unrest gripped the country and a powerful agitation against the Act started. During this agitation, Gandhiji took command of the nationalist movement. March and April 1919 witnessed a remarkable political awakening in the country. There were hartals, strikes and demonstrations at various places. The slogans of Hindu-Muslim unity filled the air.

Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre (1919)
The Government was bent on suppressing the mass agitation. In Bombay; Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Delhi and at other places demonstrators were lathi-charged and fired upon. Gandhiji gave a call for a general hartal on April 6, 1919. The call was responded to with great enthusiasm. The Government decided to resort to repression to suppress the agitation. At this time the British Government committed one of the worst political crimes in modem history. An unarmed but a large crowd had gathered in Jallianwalla Bagh, Amritsar (Punjab) on April, 13, 1919 for a meeting. General Dyer ordered his troops to open fire on them without warning. This massacre of unarmed people (hundreds died and thousands were wounded) in an enclosed place from which there was no exit, was fol­lowed by a reign of terror in several districts under martial law.

Non-Cooperation Movement (1920)
With the Congress support of the Khilafat movement, Hindu-Muslim unity was achieved which encouraged Gandhiji to launch his non-violent, non-cooperation movement. At the Calcutta Session in September 1920, the Congress resolved in favour of the non-violent, non-cooperation movement and defined Swaraj as its ultimate aim. The movement envisaged: (i) Surrender of titles and honorary officers; (ii) Resignation from nominated offices and posts in the local bodies; (iii) Refusal to attend government darbars and official functions and boycott of British courts by the lawyers; (iv) Refusal of general public to offer themselves for military and other government jobs, and boycott of foreign goods, etc.
 The non-cooperation movement also saw picketing of shops selling foreign cloth and boycott of the foreign cloth by the followers of Gandhiji.
Chauri Chaura Incident (1922)
The Congress session held at Ahmedabad in December 1921 decided to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement while reiterating its stand on the non-violent, non­cooperation movement of which Gandhiji was appointed the leader. Before Gandhiji could launch the Civil Disobedience Movement, a mob of countrymen at Chauri Chaura, a place near Gorakhpur in D.P., clashed with the police which opened fire. In retaliation the mob burnt the police-station and killed 22 policemen. This compelled Gandhiji to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement on February 12, 1922.
 Despite this Gandhiji was arrested and sentenced to six years imprisonment. The Chauri Chaura incident convinced Gandhiji that the nation was not yet ready for the mass-dis6bedience and he prevailed upon Congress Working Committee in Bardoli on February 12, 1922 to call off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Swaraj Party (1922)
Gandhiji's decision to call off the agitation caused frustration among masses. His decision came in for severe criticism from his colleagues like Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das and N.C. Kelkar, who organized the Swaraj Party. The foundations of the 'Swaraj Party' were laid on January 1, 1923, as the 'Congress­Khilafat-Swarajya Patty'. It proposed then an alternative programme of diverting the movement from widespread civil disobedience programme to restrictive one which would encourage its member to enter into legislative councils (established under Montford Reforms of 1919) by contesting elections in order to wreck the legislature from within and to use moral pressure to compel the authority to concede to the popular demand for self-government.

Simon Commission (1927)
Under the 1919 Act, a statutory commission was to be appointed by the British Government at the end of ten years from the passing of the Act to inquire into the working of the system of government in the country and to recommend further reforms. Thus the commission was scheduled to be appointed in 1929. It was ac­tually appointed two years earlier in 1927. The commission consisted of seven members of the British Parliament. It was headed by Sir John Simon. As all its members were British, the Congress decided to boycott it. The Commission arrived in India in Feb. 1928. It was greeted with black flags and hostile demonstrations everywhere it went. In one such demonstration at Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured in a wanton police lathi-charge on the demonstrators. Lalaji died soon after from wounds received during the demonstration.

Dandi March (1930)
Also called the 'Salt Satyagraha'. To achieve the goal of complete independence, Gandhiji launched another civil disobedience movement. Along with 79 followers, Gandhiji started his famous march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 20,1930, for the small village Dandi to break the Salt Law. While Gandhiji was marching to Dandi,
Congress leaders and workers had been busy at various levels with the hard organizational tasks of enrolling volunteers and members, forming grassroot Congress Committees, collecting funds, and touring villages and towns to spread nationalist messages.
 On reaching the seashore on April 6, 1930, he broke the Salt Law by picking up salt from the seashore. By picking a handful of salt, Gandhiji inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement, a movement that was to remain unsurpassed in the history of the Indian National Movement for the countrywide mass participation it unleashed. The movement became so powerful that it sparked off partriotism even among the Indian soldiers in the Army. The Garhwal soldiers refused to fire on the people at Peshawar.
Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931)
Early in 1931 two moderate statesmen, Sapru and Jayakar, initiated efforts to bring about rapprochement between Gandhiji and the government. Six meetings with Viceroy Lord Irwin finally led to the signing of a pact between the two on March 5, 1931, whereby the Congress called off the movement and agreed to join the Second Round Table Conference. The terms of the agreement included the immediate release of all political prisoners not convicted for violence, the remission of all fines not yet collected, the return of confiscated land not yet sold to third parties, and lenient treatment of all the government officials who had resigned.
 Gandhiji and other leaders were released from jail as Irwin agreed to release most political prisoners and to return the properties that had been seized by the governments. The government also conceded the right to make the salt for consumption of villages along the coast, and also the right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing. The Congress on its part, agreed to discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement and to participate in the next Round Table Conference.
The Government of India Act, 1935
The Simon Commission report submitted in 1930 formed the basis for the Government of India Act 1935. The new Government of India Act received the royal assent on August 4, 1935.
 The Act continued and extended all the existing features of the Indian constitution. Popular representation, which went back to 1892, dyarchy and ministerial responsibility, which dated from 1921, provincial autonomy, whose chequered history went back to eighteenth century presidencies, communal representation, which first received recognition in 1909, and the safeguards devised in 1919, were all continued and in most cases extended. But in addition there were certain new principles intro­duced. It provided for a federal type of government. Thus, the act:
(a) Introduced provincial autonomy
(b) Abolished dyarchy in provinces I
(c) Made ministers responsible to the legislative and federation at the centre
 The Act of 1935 was condemned by nearly all sections of Indian public opinion and was unanimously rejected by the Congress. The Congress demanded instead, the convening of a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise to frame a constitution for an independent India.
Quit India Movement (1942)
On August 8, 1942, the Congress in its meeting at Bombay passed a resolution known as 'Quit India' resolution, whereby Gandhiji asked the British to quit India and gave a call for 'Do or die' to his countrymen. On August 9, 1942, Gandhiji was arrested but the other leaders continued the revolutionary struggle. Violence spread throughout the country, several government officers were destroyed and damaged, telegraph wires were cut and communication paralyzed. The movement was, however, crushed by the government.
Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)
The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year 1945-46. The British Prime Minister, Lord Attlee, made a declaration on March 15, 1946, that British Cabinet Mission would visit India to make recommendations regarding constitutional reforms to be introduced in India. The Cabinet Mission which constituted of Lord Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander visited India and met the representatives of different political parties but a satisfactory solution to the constitutional difficulties could not be found. The Mission envisaged the establishment of a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution as well as an interim government. The Muslim League accepted the plan on June 6, 1946, while maintaining its rights of striving for a separate Muslim state. The Congress also partially accepted the plan.
Interim Government (1946)
On September 2, 1946, an inter­im government was formed. Congress members led by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru joined it but the Muslim League did not as it withdrew its earlier acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Formation of Constituent Assembly (1946)
The Constituent Assembly met on December 9, 1946, and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected its President. The Muslim League did not join the Assembly.

Mountbatten Plan (1947)
In March 1947, Lord Mountbatten replaced Lord Wavell. He announced his plan on June 3, 1947. It offered a key to the political and constitutional deadlock created by the refusal of the Muslim League to join the Constituent Assembly formed to frame the Constitution of India. Mountbatten's formula was to divide India but retain maximum unity. The country would be partitioned but so would be Punjab and Bengal, so that the limited Pakistan that emerged would meet both the Congress and the League's position to some extent. The League's position on Pakistan was conceded in that it would be created, but the Congress position on unity would be taken into account to make Pakistan as small as possible. He laid down detailed principles for the partition of the country and speedy transfer of political powers in the form of dominion status to the newly formed dominions of India and Pakistan. Its acceptance by the Congress and the Muslim' League resulted in the birth of Pakistan.

 The Indian Independence Act, 1947
The Bill containing the provisions of the Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947, was introduced in the British Parliament and passed as the Indian Independence Act,
1947. The Act laid down detailed measures for the partition of India and speedy transfer of political powers to the new government of India and Pakistan.
 Partition of India (1947)
In accordance with the Indian Independence Act, 1947, India was partitioned on August 15, 1947 into India and Pakistan. The Act made India and Pakistan independent dominions. Bloodshed and violence marked the exodus of refugees. The state of Kashmir acceded to the Indian Union, after the raiders were helped by Pakistan, in October 1947. Lord Mountbatten was appointed the Governor-General of free1ndia and M.A. Jinnah the first Governor-General of Pakistan.

Prominent Figures of the Indian Freedom Movement

Prominent Figures of the Indian Freedom Movement

Allan Octavian Hume (1829-1912)
A retired English member of the Indian Civil Services who sympathised with the Indian cause and propagated the ideals of the Congress in Britain. He founded the Indian National Congress in 1885 and was its first General Secretary.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920)
An aggressive freedom fighter popularly known as 'The Father of Indian Unrest'. His political career began in 1896 during the famine in the Deccan. His followers along with him preached the relevant sections of the Famine Relief Code and motivated the people to be bold and fearless in demanding their rights. He was first Indian leader to give the slogan "Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it". He is the author of Gita-Rahasaya through which he taught the people to fight against oppression and unrighteousness. He started two well-known newspapers: Kesari(Marathi) and Maratha (English) to rouse national sentiments. The three leaders: Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal are known in the history of Indian freedom movement as 'Lal, Bal, Pal'.

Bipin Chandra Pal (1858-1932)
One of the extremist leaders of the freedom struggle and an ardent supporter of the boycott of foreign goods, the Swadeshi movement and national education. He did not believe in Dominion Status and wanted full-fledged independence. Achieved national stature after partition of Bengal. In the 1907 Surat Congress session, he fought for Tilak's candidature for presidentship.

Dadabhai Naoroji (1824-1917)
Also known as the 'Grand Old Man of India', he was a prominent Congress leader and worked for Swaraj in England which was the centre of his political activities. He was the first Indian to be elected member of the House of Commons from a London county. He authored Poverty and Un-British Rule in India.

Surendranath Bannerji (1848-1925)
He entered the Indian Civil Services in 1869 but was dismissed for a minor irregularity. He then established the Rippon College of which he remained the Principal for several years. Surendranath Bannerji started a daily newspaper 'Bengal' which was published in English. He was the president of Indian National Congress twice (1895 and 1902).

Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915)
Started as a maths teacher and rose to the position of Principal of the well-known Ferguson College, Pune. He played a commendable role in the Imperial Legislative Council of which he was a member in 1902. He founded 'The Servants of India Society' and served as President of the Indian National Congress in 1907.

Ms Annie Besant (1847-1933)
Also known as the 'Grand Old Lady of Indian Nationalism'. She became member of the Theosophical Society in 1889 and became its President in 1907. She settled in India and worked for the social upliftment of the people. Ms Annie Besant joined the Congress and in 1916 inaugurated the All India 'Home Rule League' in Madras. She played a prominent role in uniting militant and moderate leaders at the Congress session in Lucknow in 1920. Later she left the Congress but continued to serve India. She translated the Bhagawad Gita into English.

Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928)
A dedicated social worker educationist, he joined the Indian National Congress in 1888. He supported the extremist leaders in the 1907 Congress split-along with Tilak. Lal Lajpat Rai started and edited a newspaper Young India, presided over the 1920 Congress Session and became member of the Indian Legislative Assembly in 1923. In 1920 he led the non-cooperation movement in Punjab and was sent to jail. On a visit to Lahore on October 30, 1928, he suffered severe lathi blows in a police attack and later died of injuries. He is also called 'Sher-e-Punjab' and 'Punjab Kesri'.

C. R. Das (1870-1925)
Also known as 'Deshbandhu', a lawyer in the Calcutta Bar he entered politics in 1920. He presided over the Gaya Congress session and along with Motilal Nehru and Hakim Ajmal Khan launched the 'Swaraj Party' in 1923.

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya (1861-1946)
He joined the Congress in 1886 and was twice elected President of the Indian National Congress. He represented the Hindu community at the Round Table Conference and founded the Nationalist Party to protect rights of the Hindu community.

Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948)
Known as 'Father of the Nation' and 'Bapu', he was a true believer of non-violence. He led the Indian National Movement from 1920 to 1947. He worked for Hindu-Muslim unity but was assassinated in 1948.

Subhash Chandra Bose (1897)
Also known as 'Netaji', he resigned from the Indian Civil Service in 1921 and supported the non-cooperation movement led by Gandhiji. He was elected president of the Congress in 1938 but left the Congress in 1939 and formed the 'Forward Black' party. Subhash Chandra Bose was arrested during World War II but escaped from India and went to Japan where he formed theIndian National Army (INA) to fight the British but was unsuccessful due to Japan's surrender after the war. It was Netaji's wish to unfurl the national-flag at the Red Fort in Delhi. It is thus in his remembrance that the National Flag is unfurled every year at Red Fort on August 15. He also gave the slogan 'Jai Hind' to the nation. He is believed to have died in an air-crash in 1945.

Motilal Nehru (1861-1931)
A national leader of the Gandhian era; a noted lawyer of the Allahabad High Court, Motilal Nehru joined the Home Rule League in 1917 and was elected president of the Indian National Congress in 1930. He founded the Swaraj Party and donated his palatial house 'Anand Bhawan' (later known as Swaraj Bhawan) to the Congress.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875-1950)
Also known as the 'Iron Man of India' Sardar Patel was Home Minister in independent India's cabinet during which time he worked tirelessly for the integration of the Indian princely states.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888-1958)
A great national leader who believed in communal harmony, he was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1923 and was a close associate of Gandhiji. He remained Union Minister of Education from January 1947 till his death on February 22,1958.

Dr Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963)
Joined the Congress in 1911. He also edited a Hindi weekly called Desh. He is said to have changed the whole base of Indian politics after the 1920 Nagpur session of the Congress by deciding to involve the masses in the freedom movement. He remained Food and Agriculture Minister in the interim ministry and was elected President of the Constituent Assembly in 1947. He later took over as President of India between 1952 and 1962.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
A leading member of the Indian National Congress. As Congress President at the 1929 Lahore Session he declared that complete independence was the aim of the Congress. Jawaharlal Nehru remained PM of India from 1947 till his death. He pronounced the doctrine of Panchsheel which is based on the ideology of peaceful co-existence and non-alignment. He authored Discovery of India and Glimpses of World History, among other books.

Major Dynasties and Rulers of India

Major Dynasties and Rulers of India

6–4 BC  Magadhan Ascendancy (North India)
  544–492  Bimbisara
 492–460  Ajatshatru
  344–323  Mahapadma Nanda, Dhan Nanda
4–2 BC  Mauryan Empire (Areas south of Karnataka)
  324–300  Chandragupta Maurya
  298–273  Bindusara
  273–236  Ashoka
2–1 BC  Shungas (Ganges valley and part of Central India)
  184–151  Demetrius II
  155–130  Menander (Milinda)
1 BC–AD 3  Satavahanas (North Deccan) 120 Gautamiputra Satakarni
1 BC–AD 3  Shakas (West India)
1 BC–AD 3  Kushanas  (Northern India and Central Asia)
AD 4–AD 6  Guptas (North India)
  319/20–330  Chandragupta I
  330–375  Samudragupta
  375–413  Chandragupta II
  413–455  Kumaragupta I
  455–477  Skandagupta
AD 4–AD 9  Pallavas (Tamil Nadu)
AD 5–AD 6  Hunas (Northwestern India and Central Asia)
AD 7  Harsha (North India and Central Asia)
300–888  Pallavas (Tamil Nadu)
  630–668  Narasimhavaraman Mahamalla
  695–722  Narasimhavaram II
556–757  Chalukyas of  Vatapi (West and Central Deccan)
609–642  Pulakeshin II
7th to 10th C  Pandyas of Madurai (Tamil Nadu)
 668–815  Veruguna I
  815–862  Shrimara Shrivallabha
  862–867  Varaguna II
630–970  Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (Andhra Pradesh)
750–1142  Rashtrakutra (West and Central Deccan)
773–1019  Pratiharas (West India and Upper Ganges)
850–1276  Cholas of Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu)
916–1203  Chandellas (Bundelkhand)
850–1195  Kalachuris of Tripuri (Madhya Pradesh)
973–1192  Chalukyas of Kalyani (West and Central Deccan)
974–1060  Paramaras (Malwa)
1090–1193  Gahadavalas (Kanauj)
1110–1327  Hoysalas of Dvarasamudra (South Deccan)
1118–1199  Senas (Bengal)
1190–1294  Yadavas of Deyagiri (North Deccan)
1206–1290  Ilbari
1290–1320  Khilji
1320–1414  Tughlaqus
1451–1526  Lodis
1526–1857  Mughals
1540–1555  Suri
1649–1818  Marathas
1708–1818  Peshwas

Monday, April 11, 2011

Important Days

Important Days

January 9NRI Day
January 10World Laughter Day
January 12National Youth Day
January 15Army Day
January 26India's Republic Day, International Customs Day
January 30Martyrs' Day; World Leprosy Eradication Day
2nd Sunday of FebruaryWorld Marriage Day
February 24Central Excise Day
February 28National Science Day
Second Monday MarchCommonwealth Day
March 8International Women's Day; Intl. literacy Day
March 15World Disabled Day; World Consumer Rights Day
March 18Ordnance Factories Day (India)
March 21World Forestry Day; International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
March 22World Day for Water
March 23World Meteorological Day
March 24World TB Day
April 5International Day for Mine Awareness; National Maritime Day
April 7World Health Day
April 17World Haemophilia Day
April 18World Heritage Day
April 21Secretaries' Day
 April 22Earth Day
April 23World Book and Copyright Day
May 1Workers' Day (International Labour Day)
May 3Press Freedom Day; World Asthma Day
May 2nd SundayMother's Day
May 4Coal Miners' Day
May 8World Red Cross Day
May 9World Thalassaemia Day
May 11National Technology Day
May 12World Hypertension Day; International Nurses Day
May 15International Day of the Family
May 17World Telecommunication Day
May 24Commonwealth Day
May 31Anti-tobacco Day
June 4International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression
June 5World Environment Day
June 3rd SundayFather's Day
June 14World Blood Donor Day
June 26International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking
July 1Doctor's Day
July 6World Zoonoses Day
July 11World Population Day
August 3Internatioal Friendship Day
August 6Hiroshima Day
August 8World Senior Citizen's Day
August 9Quit India Day, Nagasaki Day
August 15Indian Independence Day
August 18IntI. Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples
August 19Photography Day
August 29National Sports Day
September 2Coconut Day
September 5Teachers' Day; Sanskrit Day
September 8World Literacy Day (UNESCO)
 September 15Engineers' Day
September 16World Ozone Day
September 21Alzheimer's Day; Day for Peace & Non-violence (UN)
September 22Rose Day (Welfare of cancer patients)
September 26Day of the Deaf
September 27World Tourism Day
October 1International Day for the Elderly
October 2Gandhi Jayanthi
October 3World Habitat Day
October 4World Animal Welfare Day
October 8Indian Air Force Day
October 9World Post Office Day
October 10National Post Day
October 2nd ThursdayWorld Sight Day
October 13UN International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction
October 14World Standards Day
October 15World White Cane Day (guiding the blind)
October 16World Food Day
October 24UN Day; World Development Information Day
October 30World Thrift Day
November 9Legal Services Day
November 14Children's Day; Diabetes Day
November 17National Epilepsy Day
November 20Africa Industrialisation Day
November 29International Day of Solidarity with Palestinian People
December 1World AIDS Day
December 3World Day of the Handicapped
December 4Indian Navy Day
December 7Indian Armed Forces Flag Day
December 10Human Rights Day; IntI. Children's Day of Broadcasting
December 18Minorities Rights Day (India)
December 23Kisan Divas (Farmer's Day) (India)

Heads of Important Offices (India)

Heads of Important Offices (India)
Dr. Manmohan Singh: Chairman, Planning Commission.
Ms. Meira Kumar: Speaker, Lok Sabha.
Mohammad Hamid Ansari: Chairman, Rajya Sabha.
Mr. K. Rahman Khan: Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha.
Mr. Karia Munda: Deputy Speaker, Lok Sabha.
Mrs. Sushma Swaraj : Leader of Opposition (Lok Sabha).
Mr. Arun Jaitley: Leader of Opposition (Rajya Sabha).
Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia: Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission.
Mr. S. Y. Quraishi: Chief Election Commissioner
Mr. V. S. Sampath : Election Commissioner.
Mr. Harishankar Brahma : Election Commissioner.
Mr. Vinod Rai : Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
Mr. Justice K. G. Balakrishnan : Chairperson, National Human Right Commission (NHRC)
Mr. K. M. Chandrasekhar: Cabinet Secretary.
Mr. T. K. A. Nair : Principal Secretary to Prime Minister .
Mr. Justice M. N. Rao: Chairman, National Commission for Backward Classes.
Ms. Shanta Sinha: Chairperson, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights
Dr. Buta Singh: Chairman, National Commission for Scheduled Castes
Ms. Urmila Singh: Chairman, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
Prof. D. P. Agrawal: Chairman, UPSC.
Dr. M. S. Swaminathan : Chairman, National Commission on Farmers.
Mr. Shiv Shankar Menon: National Security Adviser and Special Adviser to PM (Internal Security).
Mr. S. C. Sinha : Director-General, National Investigation Agency (NIA).
Mr. S. S. Khurana: Chairman, Railway Board.
Mr. Vivek Kumar Agnihotri: Secretary-General, Rajya Sabha
Mr. T. K. Viswanathan : Secretary-General, Lok Sabha.
Mr. Nehchal Sandhu: Director, IB.
Mr. A. P. Singh: Director, CBI.
Mr. K. C. Verma: Director, Research and Analysis Wing.
Mr. R. K. Medhekar : Director-General, NSG.
Mr. Vijay Kumar : Director-General, CRPF.
Mr. Raman Srivastava : Director-General, Border Security Force (BSF).
Mr. Niraj Ranjan Das : Director-General, Central Industrial Security Force (CISF).
Mr. Ranjit Sinha: Director-General, Railway Protection Force.
Mr. R. K. Bhatia: Director-General, Indo-Tibetan Border Police.
Mr. Y. S. Dadwal : Director-General, Sashastra Seema Bal.
Vice-Admiral Anil Chopra: Director-General, Coast Guard.
Lt. Gen. Avtar Singh: Director-General, Defence Intelligence Agency.
Mr. Sukhadeo Thorat : Chairman, UGC.
Mr. V. K. Saraswat : Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister and Secretary, Defence Research & Development Organisation.
Dr. R. Chidambaram : Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government.
Mr. K. Radhakrishnan: Chairman, Space Commission and ISRO.
Mr. Srikumar Banerjee : Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Dept. of Atomic Energy.
Mr. N. K. Raghupathy : Chairman, SSC.
Mr. Justice (Retd.) B. N. Kirpal: Chairman, National Forest Commission.
Dr. Amrita Patel: Chairperson, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).
Lt. Gen. M. C. Badhani : Director-General, Border Roads Organisation.
Dr. Vishwa Mohan Katoch : Director-General, Indian Council of Medical Research.
Mr. C. Chandramouli : Registrar-General of India and Census Commissioner.
Mr. P. V. Reddy : Chairman, Law Commission.
Mr. Duvvuri Subbarao : Governor, RBI.
Mr. Justice G. N. Ray: Chairman, Press Council of India.
Mr. V. J. Darda : Chairman, Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).
Mr. S. S. N. Moorthy: Chairperson, Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT).
Mr. A. K. Singh: Chairman, Central Board of Excise & Customs.
Justice Arijit Pasayat : Chairperson, Competition Appellate Tribunal
Mr. S. K. Garg : CMD, NHPC.
Mr. R. S. Sharma: CMD, ONGC.
Mr. U. D. Choubey : CMD, GAIL.
Mr. S. Behuria : Chairman, IOC.
Mr. N. M. Borah: CMD, Oil India Ltd.
Mr. Ashok Ganguly: Chairman, CBSE.
Mr. C. B. Bhave: Chairman, Securities & Exchange Board of India.
Mr. U. C. Sarangi: Chairman, NABARD.
Mr. O. P. Bhat : Chairman, SBI.
Mr. V. P. Shetty : Chairman, IDBI.
Mr. S. Balasubramanian : Chairman, Company Law Board.
Mr. Hardeep Singh Puri : India's Permanent Representative to UN.
Mr. T. S. Vijayan : Chairman, LIC
Mr. A. K. Bajaj : Chairman, Central Water Commission.
Ms. Girija Vyas : Chairperson, National Commission for Women.
Dr. Vijay L. Kelkar: Chairman, 13th Finance Commission.
Prof. Suresh D. Tendulkar : Chairman, National Statistical Commission.
Ms. Shafmila Tagore : Chairperson, Central Board of Film Certification.
Dr. Gautam Sengupta : Director-General, Archaeological Survey of India.
Mr. Rajan Bharti Mittal : President, FICCI.
Mr. J. S. Sarma: Chairman, TRAI
Mr. R. N. Das : Director, Enforcement Directorate.
Mr. Yogesh Agarwal: Chairman, Pension Fund Regulatory & Development Authority.
Mr. P. J. Thomas : Central Vigilance Commissioner.
Dr. Ratan Kumar Sinha : Director, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
Mr. Wajahat Habibullah : Information Commissioner.
Mr. Suresh Kalmadi : President, Indian Olympic Association.
Prof. Krishan Kumar: Director, NCERT.
Mr. Hari S. Bharti: President, CII.
Mr. Sam Pitroda : Chairman, National Knowledge Commission.
Ms. Mrinal Pande : Chairman, Prasar Bharti Board.
Mr. Ratan Tata : Chairman, Investment Commission.
Mr. Harsh Manglik : Chairman, NASSCOM.
Mr. Swati Piramal: President, ASSOCHAM.
Mr. Om Puri : Chairman, National Film Development Corporation.
Mr. Ravindra Kumar: Chairman, United News of India.
Mr. N. Ravi : Chairman, PTI.
Mr. Hormusji N. Cama: President, Indian Newspaper Society.
Mr. Dilip Modi : President, The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM).

Saturday, December 18, 2010

Kushans and Kanishkas

[AD 50 - 300]

AD 50: Establishment of Kushans

The Kushans were a branch of the nomadic Yeuhchi tribe of China. The Yeuhchi tribe was in conflict with another tribe and so was forced to leave China. They came to Central Asia and then spread to Bactria, Paritha and Afghanistan. Gradually they were divided into five branches. One of these branches -- Kouel Chougang (Kushans) -- was superior to all. The Kushans under Kujala attacked the Parithans, took possessions of Ki-pin and Kabul and became the complete master of the Indian borderland.
Kujala became the first king of the Kushans and was known as Kadphises I. He was a great warrior. He was succeeded by his son Wima Kadphises known as Kadphises II. He conquered the north-western region of India. He defeated Saka Satraps in the north-west. Punjab and Sind were his dominions.
Gupta Empire Map

AD 120: Reign of Kanishka

Kanishka was the most famous of the Kushan kings. It is not known how he became the king but he ascended the throne in AD 120. When Kanishka ascended the throne, his empire consisted of Afghanistan, Sind, Punjab and portions of the former Parithan and Bactrian kingdoms. His empire extended from the north-west and Kashmir, over most of the Gangetic valley. He annexed three provinces of the Chinese empire, namely, Tashkand, Khotan and Yarkhand. He was the only king who ruled over these territories. He had two capitals at Purushpura (Peshawar now in Pakistan) and at Mathura in west Uttar Pradesh. Kanishka proved that he was a great conqueror.

Successors of Kanishka

Kanishka's immediate successor was Vashiska who was then succeeded by Huvishka. Mathura became the centre of Kushans. Many monuments were erected during Huvishka's reign. The last great king of Kushans was Vasudev I. The Kushans were overthrown by the Sassanians of Persia in the north-west and the Guptas in the north. The rule of Kushans ended almost at the same time as that of the Satavahans in the south.

Buddhism during the Kushans

Kanishka embraced Buddhism towards the middle of his reign. He is said to have been Zoroastrian before he became Buddhist. He spent his resources in spreading Buddhism. Mahayana was the new form of Buddhism that was followed during this period where the Buddha was worshipped as God. Old monastries were repaired and many new ones were built.

Art, Science and Literature

Kanishka was a great patron of art and literature. A new form of art Gandhara Art was developed. Beautiful images of Buddha were developed in a Greek-Roman style. These images were carved in a realistic way, with graceful bodies and curly hair.
Kanishka's court was adorned by many scholars like Ashvaghosha, Vasumitra, Nagarjuna and Charaka. Ashvaghosha was a great poet and a master of music. He wrote Buddhacharita, a biography of the Buddha. Charak was a great physician and he wrote a book Charak Samhita, which is based on the Ayurvedic system of medicine.
89-105 AD 
  Kushan king repulsed by the Chinese General Pan Chao
  An-Shih-Kao translates a work by Kanishka's Chaplain
152 AD 
  China loses Khotan
230 AD  
  The Yueh chi king Vasudeva sends an embassy to China
  Sassanian conquest of parts of North-West India