Wednesday, July 18, 2012

What Is GSM?

GSM, or Global System for Mobile Communications, is a cellular phone protocol that is standard in most parts of the world. Technology experts created the protocol in the 1980s and ’90s to standardize cellular phone service between countries in Europe. GSM phones use subscriber identity module (SIM) cards, which is essential to their function and enable the user to change phones easily. It is a chief competitor to the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) protocol.


Technically, the term GSM refers to second-generation (2G) voice networks that operate based on a combination of time division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency division multiple access (FDMA). TDMA takes the frequency channel the phone uses and divides it into individual bits of time that are assigned to each user. FDMA divides the frequency band into sections and assigns one to each cell phone tower. Towers are typically spread far enough apart so that those using the same frequency do not overlap their areas of coverage.

The term “GSM” is also used to refer to third-generation (3G) technology put into place by the same companies and using the same underlying network. This is actually called Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), and uses the Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) air interface standard in most places. Although they are both spread spectrum technologies, W-CDMA and the standard used by competing CDMA phones (usually CDMA2000) are not compatable.


Although both refer to cellular phone networks, GSM and CDMA differ in the technology that they use. CDMA uses a system in which all signals are sent at the same time, but each is spread across multiple frequencies. Servers assign an individual code to each transmission so that the signals don’t interfere with each other and can be matched up between the sender and receiver.

Originally, the two protocols differed in signal quality, consistency, and voice distortion, among other features. Both methods have been improved, however, and there are few significant differences between the two in terms of call quality. GSM phones are slightly more likely to drop calls as a user moves between cell towers, but they have better coverage in places with a lot of mountains. This technology also allows for voice and data transmission at the same time, which most CDMA phones cannot do.

In some parts of the world, both services are available, but one tends to be more common than the other. Most cellular service providers only use one type of network because it’s very expensive to maintain both types of service. GSM is the older service, and is found in most places around the world, while CDMA is most common in the US and Asia.

SIM Cards

GSM phones use a SIM card, which is a small card with an embedded integrated circuit that stores personal data, the user’s phone number, account information, and contacts. When a user switches phones, exchanging the SIM card from one phone to the other transfers the cell service and phone number, and activates the new phone. The contact list, calendar, and other personal data is usually easily moved between handsets.

Data Transfer Information

The 2G system is capable of data transmission speeds of up to 14.4 kilobits per second (kbps). Originally, not all networks had this capability, but continued advances and improvements in the system have raised speeds. 3G systems, which are designed specifically for mobile Internet and video, can transfer data much more quickly; depending on the interface, theoretical download speeds range from 2 megabits per second (Mbps) to 56 Mbps.


The frequency band used by these phones depends on several factors, including the location and technological changes. For example, in Europe, 2G GSM networks operate in the ranges of 900MHz and 1,800MHz and 3G networks use the 2,100 MHz band. The United States operates on frequencies in the range of 850MHz and 1,900MHz. Many other countries, including Australia and some places in South America, use the 850 MHz range. Most phones are designed for the countries where they are used most often, but a quad-band handset will handle 850, 900, 1,800, and 1,900MHz, and usually work in most areas.


As of 2011, most countries from the Arctic region to Antarctica use the GSM protocol. It’s particularly common in Europe, where it originated, and most of the Eastern hemisphere generally, including many developing countries. In the Western hemisphere, the CDMA protocol is more common in the United States and a few other countries. However, many countries, including Canada and Brazil, use GSM.


The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) created GSM to standardizemobile phone communications among European nations; before this, each country had its own protocol. Standardizing the technology created a large, growing pool of users, and the protocol spread throughout the world. In 2002, approximately 70% of cellular phone clients worldwide used GSM services, while about 12% used CDMA. By early 2010, the GSM Association stated that there were over 4 billion users, and they estimate that there will be over 6 billion by 2015.

Monday, July 16, 2012

Vaio Logo

Do u know the hidden meaning of the Vaio logo.????

Sony Vaio is a well known brand of laptops. But did you know that the name Vaio logo also had a hidden meaning? 

VAIO Originally an acronym of Video Audio Integrated Operation , this was amended to Visual Audio Intelligent Organizer in 2008. the first two letters represent the basic analogue signal. The last two letters look like a 1 and 0, representing the digital signal.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

differentiation formulas

Maths differentiation formulas

Algebric Function

Product Rule And Quotient Rule

Trignomatric Function And Inverse Trignomatric Function


Friday, March 9, 2012


Arfa Kareem

Arfa Abdul Karim Randhawa (Urduارفع کریم رندهاوا‎, 2 February 1995 – 14 January 2012) was a Pakistani student and computer prodigy, who in 2004 at the age of nine years becameMicrosoft Certified Professional (MCP), the youngest in the world until 2008. She was invited by Bill Gates to visit the Microsoft Headquarters in the USA. A science park in Lahore was named after her, the Arfa Software Technology Park.

Arfa Abdul Karim has represented Pakistan on various international forums, and was invited by the Pakistan Information Technology Professionals Forum for a stay of two weeks in Dubai. A dinner reception was hosted for her there, which was attended by the dignitaries of Dubai including the Ambassador of Pakistan. During that trip, Arfa was presented with various awards and gifts including a laptop. In November 2006, Arfa attended the Tech-Ed Developers conference themed Get ahead of the game held in Barcelona on an invitation from Microsoft. She was the only Pakistani among over 5000 developers in that conference

In 2011, at the age of 16, Arfa Abdul Karim was studying at the Lahore Grammar School Paragon Campus in her second year of A-levels. On 22 December 2011 she suffered a cardiac arrest after an epileptic seizure that damaged her brain, and was admitted to Lahore's Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in critical condition.
On 9 January 2012, Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft, contacted Arfa's parents and directed his doctors to adopt "every kind of measure" for her treatment. Gates set up a special panel of international doctors who remained in contact with her local doctors through teleconference. The panel received details about her illness and provided assistance in diagnosis and treatment. Local doctors dismissed the option of moving Arfa to another hospital owing to her being on a ventilator and in critical condition. Members of Arfa's family have lauded Bill Gates for offering to bear her treatment expenses.
On 13 January 2012, Arfa Abdul Karim started to improve and some parts of her brain showed signs of improvement. Her father, Amjad Abdul Karim Randhawa, said Microsoft had raised the possibility of flying Arfa to the US for care.

On 14 January 2012, 16-year-old Arfa Abdul Karim died at 9:50 PM (Pakistan Standard Time) at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore.

Wednesday, March 7, 2012

Latest GK India, March 2012

Latest GK India, March 2012

According to 2011 Annual Report of the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) released globally in Vienna, which country figures high in online dope trade?
- India ( 151 Kg illicit drugs recovered from 152 parcels in 2011)

What are the harsher punishments for traffic violations according to the amended Motor Vehicle Act approved on 1st March, 2012 by government?
For drunken driving the increased fine will range from Rs 2000 to 10,000 and imprisonment from six months to four years. For using mobile phones while driving fine raised to Rs 500 for first offence and Rs 2000 to Rs 5000 for subsequent offences.

India and which other country with long coastline have agreed to hold first ever maritime talks?
- China

Who is appointed new Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Training Command, IAF in Bangalore on 1st March,2012?
- Air Marshal Rajinder Singh ( Born in 1953 at Palampur, H.P)

Recently a pin shaped device suspected to be a remote electronic listening device was found in whose office?
- In the office of Defence Minister AK Antony on 16th Feb, 2012

Who has been appointed as the chairman of the monitoring authority that is supervising the investigations into 22 alleged fake encounter killings in Gujarat during 2002-06 by the Supreme Court on 2nd March,2012?
- Retired judge HS Bedi

Who will be Pakistan's new cricket coach? 
- Former Australian batsman Dav Whatmore

Who will be the next Army Chief after General VK Singh, retiring from service on 31st May,2012?
- Lieutenant General Bikram Singh (second-ever Sikh, after General JJ Singh (retd.) to command the 1.3 million strong Indian Army)

When did the Army successfully test fired the 290 Km range BrahMos supersonic cruise missile at the Pokharan range to operationalize the second regiment of the weapon system in service?
- On 4th March, 2012 ( One regiment of the 290 Km range BrahMos consists around 65 missiles, five mobile autonomous launchers on Tatra vehicles and two mobile command posts, among other equipments.) 

Who clinched the first women's Kabaddi World Cup championship title after defeating Iran?
- India

Saturday, May 28, 2011

mpboard class 10th result Declared [today 28-05-2011]

mp board class 10th result will be declared today[28-5-2011]

all students may visit mp borad official site for result and other information

Best of luck for your result

visit regularly our forum for all result,admit card,syllabus,timetable etc

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

MP PET 2011 Answer Key & Solution (Exam held on 22 May)[published]

MP PET 2011 Answer Key & Solution (Exam held on 22 May 2011)

Madhya Pradesh Pre Engineering Test is
conducted by Professional Examination Board, Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal
for admission to BE/BArch/BTech (Agril Engg) and BTech (Dairy Tech)
courses in : (I) Government Engineering Colleges; (ii) Private Engineering

i will upload the the both solution paper 1 and paper 2...

download below attachment...

click below link to get pet 2011 may 22 pet entrance exam solutions..

Thursday, May 19, 2011

Economics Question Bank Economy Quiz solved Economics Test

Economics Question Bank Economy Quiz solved Economics Test
answer questions about economics
MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS. Sample Test Multiple Choice Questions MCQ
economics review questions and economics interview questions
1. The basic difference between imperative and indicative planning is that ?
(a) it is easier to achieve targets in imperative type of planning
(b) in the case of imperative planning, all economic activities belong to public sector, while in the other type they belong to the private sector.
(c) in the case of the imperative planning, the market mechanism is entirely replaced by a command hierarchy, while in the case of indicative planning, it is looked upon as a way to improve the functioning of the market system
(d) in the case of indicative planning, there is no need to nationalize any industry

2. The principal reason why national economic planning is still being pursued in spite of embracing a market economy since 1991 is that
(a) The vast quantity of capital already deployed in the public sector needs to be nurtured.
(b) The market economy is mainly confined to industry and commerce, and central planning in agriculture is necessary.
(c) It is a constitutional requirement.
(d) Five Year Plans can continue to provide a long-term perspective to the economy in market friendly fashions.
3. The type of planning experimented between 1978 and 1980 is known as
(a) Rolling Plan
(b) Annual Plan
(c) Indicative Plan
(d) Collective Plan
4 Narasimhan report relates to the restructuring of
(a)sick industries
(b) sales tax
(c)income tax
(d) banks
5. Which of the following organizations functions as an apex institution for the agencies engaged in the economic development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes?
(a) National Research Development Corporation
(b) National Institute of Rural Development
(c) National Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation
(d) National Bank For Agriculture and Rural
6. Rural Development Programmes are related to
(a) Self employment
(b) giving jobs to the poorer graduates
(c) poverty alleviation in states
(d) None of these
7. When was the Cooperative Societies Act first passed in India?
(a) 1900
(b) 1902
(c) 1904
(d) 1906
8. Sarvodaya aimed at ?
(a) classless society
(b) economic revolution
(c) upliftment of weaker sections
(d) upliftment of all, irrespective of their status
9. ‘Utility’ in economics means the capacity to
(a) provide comforts
(b) earn an income
(c) satisfy human wants
(4) satisfy human motives
10. Debt service ratio implies ratio between
(a) import and debt
(b) export and principal plus and payment on debt
(c) domestic saving and import
(4)domestic saving and export
11. Saving is a function of
(b) income
(c) export
(d) improvement in productivity
12. A deflator is a technique of ?
(a) adjusting for changes in price level
(b) adjusting for change in commodity
(c) accounting for higher increase of GNP
(d) accounting for decline of GNP
13. Credit is a
(a)Stock concept
(b) Flow concept
(c) Stock flow concept
(4) None of these
14, The concept of Joint Sector implies association
(a) Small and large industries
(b) State and Central Govt enterprises
(c) Indian and multinational companies
(d) Public sector and private sector industries
15. Which of the following is the correct description of the term ‘tainted shares’?
(a) The shares purchased by NRIs
(b) The shares which were involved in the case of securities scam
(c) The shares whose price falls by mote than 20 points in a day
(d) The shares the price of which falls continuously for seven days
16. A loan bearing low rate of interest is known as
(a)Hard loan
(b) Soft loan
(c) Capital loan
(d)Real loan

17. White goods are
(a) basic raw materials
(b) cosmetic articles
(c) goods imported from the western countries
(d) durable consumption goods
18. Sellers market denotes a situation where
(a) commodities are available at competitive
(b)demand exceeds supply
(c)supply exceeds demand
(d) supply and demand are evenly balanced.
19. ‘Mixed Economy’ means
(a) co-existence of small scale and large scale industries
(b) co-existence of the rich and the poor
(c) co-existence of private and public sector
(d) assigning equal importance to both agriculture and heavy industries
20. Which of the following best defines the term ‘Letter of Credit’ as used frequently in bank transactions?
(a) An order from a bank to another bank abroad authorizes the payment of a particular amount to a person named in the letter
(b) An unconditional undertaking given by a bank ensuring the payment of a particular amount to the drawee at a given date
(c) Letter by a bank to a person stating the terms and conditions of the loan sanctioned to him by the bank
(d) Statement showing outstanding deposits and credits of a hank for a particular period
21, Unemployment which occurs when workers move from one job to another job is known as
(a) Seasonal unemployment
(b) Frictional unemployment
(c) Cyclical unemployment
(d) Technological unemployment
22. GNP (Gross National Product) is the money value of
(a) final goods and services produced annually in the economy
(b) annual service generation in the economy
(c) tangible goods available in the economy
(d) tangible goods produced annually in the
23. Development means economic growth plus
(b) deflation
(c)price stability
(d) social change
24. A Multinational is ?
(a) a company operating in several countries
(b) a company having share holders from more than one country
(c) a company which does charitable work in poor countries
(d) a company that operates only in those countries that do not have import restrictions
25. ‘Take off stage’ in an economy means
(a) steady growth begins
(b) economy is stagnant
(c) economy is about to collapse
(d) all controls are removed
26. ‘A formal evaluation of an individual’s or company’s credit history and capability of repaying obligations’ is known as
(b) Net Asset Value
(c) Credit rating
(d) Cash Credit
27. The balance of payment comprises
(a) official settlement account
(b) a current account of goods and services
(c) a capital account of financial assets
(d) All the above
28. The State’s action under which a creditor’s right to take action against a debtor for realization of debt – money is kept under suspension for a specified period is called.
(d) Moratorium
29. Equilibrium price is that price which
(a) maximizes producers profit
(b) equates consumers and producers surplus
(c) maximizes consumer’s satisfaction
equates supply and demand

30. ‘Capital goods’ refer to goods which
(a) serve as a source of raising further capital
(b) help in the further production of goods
(c) directly go into the satisfaction of human wants
(d) find multiple uses
Answers :
1 B
2 D
3 A
4 D
5 C
6 C
7 C
8 D
9 C
10 B
11 B
12 A
13 B
14 D
15 B
16 B
17 D
18 B
19 C
20 C
21 B
22 A
23 D
24 A
25 A
26 C
27 D
28 D
29 D
30 B

General Economics Model Test paper For ICAI CPT 2010 Exams

General Economics Model Test paper For ICAI CPT 2010 Exams
1. ‘Golden Hand Shake Scheme’ refers to
(a) Agricultural Policy
(b) Exit Policy
(c) New Industrial Policy
(d) None of these
2. Which of the following institutions providing finance to the industrial sector was the first to be set up ?
(a) Industrial Reconstruction Corporation of India
(b) Industrial Finance Corporation of India
(c) Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India
(d) Industrial Development Bank of India

3. Which of the following is associated with the consultancy business, in the transport sector of the Government of India?
Directions: Given below are two statements labeled as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Which of the following is true in their context?
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and Rare true but K is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(4) A is false but R is true
4. Assertion (A) : The ratio of direct taxes to gross domestic product in India has been falling in the recent past.
Reason (R) : Unaccounted ‘black’ money has grown rapidly.
5. Assertion (A) : In inflation, there is increase in money – supply and the rise in price level.
Reason (R) : The rise in price level is due to shortage in supply of essential consumer goods.
6. Assertion (A) : The Five Year Plans form the basis of Indian economy.
Reason (R): India follows Soviet pattem of planning.
7. Assertion (A) : When the price of X rises, the quantity demanded of Y increases.
Reason (R): X and Y are substitutes
8. GATT headquarters is located at ?
(b) Paris
(d) Hague
9. Voting rights in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are distributed on the basis of ?
(a) one country, one vote
(b) proportion to the share of the income of the country in the world income
(c) proportion to contributions given by each country
(d) proportion to quota allocated to countries from time to time
10. The headquarters of IMF is situated in
(b) New York
(d) Tokyo
11. Which of the following economic groups are the organisations of the Third World Countries?
1 South Commission
2. Group of 77
3. Council of Mutual Economic Assistance
4. Association of South- East Asian Nation
(a)1,2 and 3
(b) 1,2 and 4
(c)1,3 and 4
(4) 2,3 and 4
12. Most Favoured Nations (MFN) clause under GATT implies
(a) most favour to some countries
(b) no favour to some countries
(c) most favour to all countries
(d) no favour to any country
13. Which of the following types of borrowings from the IMP has the Softest servicing conditions
(a)Oil facility
(b) ESAF
(c) Second Trancha Loan
(d) SAP
14. The main function of I.M.F. is to
(a) finance investment loans to developing countries
(b) act as a private sector lending ann of the World Bank
(c) help to solve balance of payment problems of member countries
(d) arrange international deposits from banks

15. World Bank is a body
(a) of non -official, generous individuals
(b) that controls world wide foreign exchange operations
(c) of major banks operating in different countries
(d) that gives aid to developing countries
16. The World Investment Report (WIR) is publish ed by which of the following bodies?
(a) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
(b) Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
(c) International Monetary Fund (IMF)
(d) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
17. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is located at?
(a) Geneva
(b) Washington
(c) London
(d) New York
18. Which of the following were objectives for which the International Monetary Fund was established?
1. Promoting International Monetary Cooperation
2. Expanding International Trade
3. Lessening disequilibrium of balances of payment
4. Avoiding competitive exchange depreciations
(a) l,2 & 3
(b) l, 3& 4
(c)2 & 4
(d) l,2,3 & 4
19. ‘Conditionality ‘of an I.M.F; loan to a member country stands for
(a) interest and repayment terms of the loan
(b) an assessment of the credit worthiness of the borrower
(c) schedule of disbursement of loan installments
(d) the policy steps which the borrower country must take
20. The Asian Development Bank has its head quarters in ?
(b) Kathmandu
(d) Colombo
1    b
2    b
3    c
4    a
5    a
6    c
7    a
8    a
9    d
10    c
11    b
12    c
13    b
14    c
15    d
16    d
17    b
18    d
19    c
20    a

India economics questions test exercises MCQ Objective Quiz

India economics questions test exercises MCQ Objective Quiz
economics questions test worksheets practice test
Basic economic principles and facts
Basic Economics MCQ’s with Answers
Multiple choice questions economics?
1. Which of the following are the measures of Integrated Slum Development Programme adopted in India in the 11 Five Year Plan?
1. Creating and updating database on slums.
2. Using land as a resources for housing and shelter development for slum dwellers.
3. Asking slum dwellers to apply for house loan from government.
4. Granting tenure security to slum dwellers.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a)1,2 and 3
(b)1 and 2
(c)2 and 4
(d)1,2 and 4
Ans. (d)
2. Demographic divide refers to a rise in population
(a) between the age group of I to 14 years
(b) between the age group of 15 to 64 years
(c) between the age group of 65 to 74 years
(d) above 74 years
Ans. (b)
3. The total public sector outlay in the Eleventh Five Year Plan (Central, State and Union Territories) is estimated at about:
(a)Rs. 30 lakh crore
(b) Rs. 36 lakh crore
(c)Rs. 40 lakh crore
(d) Rs. 46 lakh crore
Ans. (b)
4. Which one of the following is the prescribed investment limit for medium enterprises in the manufacturing sector as per the Micro,Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006?
(a) More than Rs. 10 lakh and less than Rs. 2 crore
(b) More than Rs. 2 crore and less than Rs. 5 crore
(c) More than Rs. 5 crore and less than Rs. 10 crore
(d) More than Rs. 10 crore
Ans. (d)
5. Which one of the following statements regarding Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY) is not correct?
(a) It was launched in the year 2007
(b) The contribution of the Central Government and State Governments in the premium is in the ratio of 75 : 25
(c) The scheme is applicable to rural landless households
(d) It provides insurance against natural death as well as accidental death
Ans. (b)
6. Balance on capital account refers to the
(a) nation’s net exports of goods, and services
(b) nation’s net exports of financial claims
(c) nation’s net exports of international official reserve assets
(d) nation’s sum of net exports of goods, services and financial claims
Ans. (a)
7.With which one of the following does the Prebisch-Singer hypothesis deal?
(a) Terms of trade of less developed countries
(b) Terms of trade of developed countries
(c) Balance of payments of less developed countries
(d) Balance of payments of developed countries
Ans. (c)
8. The effect of trade with different production possibilities curves
and identical indifference curves is to make a country.
(a) more specialized in consumption and less specialized in production
(b) more specialized in production and less specialized in consumption
(c) less specialized both in consumption and in production
(d) more specialized both in consumption and in production
9. consider the following statements:
When factor intensity reversal occurs
1. Heckscher-Ohlin trade model fads.
2. factor price equalization theorem fails.
3. elasticity of substitution of one factor for the other is much higher in the production of a commodity.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a)1 only
(b) 2 only
(c)1 and3
(d) 1,2 and 3
Ans. (d)
10. Under which one of the following conditions is the gain from international trade maximised?
(a) Marginal rate of transformation (MRT) in production is equal to the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) in consumption
(b) MRT in production is greater than MRS in consumption
(c) MRT in production is less than MRS in consumption
(d) MRT in production and MRS in consumption are equal to international price ratio
Ans. (a)
11. The Lorenz curve shows the relationship between
(a) asset creation and income generation
(b) population groups and their respective income shares
(c) unemployment and inflation
(d) wages, labour hours and leisure
Ans. (b)
12. Which of the following are the characteristics of the Traditional
Society in Rostow’s Stage theory?
1. Limited production function.
2. No government intervention.
3. Pre-Newtonian science and technology.
4. Dominance of agricultural activity.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1,2and4
(b) 1,2and3
(c) 1,3and4
(d) 2,3 ánd4
Ans. (c)
13. Which one of the following is the difference between value at
market prices and value at factor cost for a national aggregate?
(a) Value of consumption of fixed capital
(b) Value of indirect taxes net of subsidies
(c) Value of net factor income earned abroad
(d) Value of subsidies net of indirect taxes
Ans. (b)
14.Given C=120+0.4Y,
(Where C =Consumption, I = Investment, G =Government Expenditure and
Y = Income); which one of the following is the value of equilibrium income?
(a) 366.67
(b) 460.00
(c) 310.00
(d) 266.67
15. According to Life Cycle Hypothesis, consumption is related to which one of the following?
(a) Current income
(b) Past peak level income
(c) Life time expected income
(d) Price expectations over one’s life time
Ans. (c)
16. Keynes states that the aggregate demand function is:
(a) an increasing function of the level of employment
(b) a decreasing function of the level of employment
(c) a constant function of the level of employment
(d) not related to the level of employment
Ans. (a)
17. Which of the following are the limitations of national income
estimation in India?
1. Output of non-monetized sector. -
2. Non availability of data about income of small producers or household enterprises.
3. Unreported legal income.
4. Inflation.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1,2,3and4
(b) 1,2and3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1 and 4
Ans. (b)
18. Which one of The following is shown by the Phillips Curve?
(a) Inverse relationship between real and nominal wages
(b) Inverse relationship between the rate of inflation and rate of unemployment
(c) Positive relationship between nominal wages and the rate of employment -
(d) Positive relationship between rate of inflation and nominal wages
Ans. (b)
19. If a producer pays the price for each of the inputs that it uses, equal to its value of marginal product, then which one of the following does it earn?
(a) Positive supernormal profit
(b) Zero supernormal profit
(c) Negative supernormal profit
(d) Monopoly profit
Ans. (b)
20. The costs of factors of production, supplied by the entrepreneur
himself are known as
(a) implicit costs
(b) explicit costs
(c) fixed costs
(d) variable costs
Ans. (b)
21.Which one of the following taxes/cess is levied by States in
(a) Tax on motor vehicles
(c) Educational cess
(b) Tax on hotels
(d) Tax on wealth
Ans. (a)
22. Which one of the following is capital receipt in government budget?
(a) Interest receipts o loans given by the Government to other parties
(b) Dividends and profits from public sector undertakings
(c) Borrowing of the Government from public
(d) Property tax receipts
Ans. (a)
23. Which of the following are the characteristics of progressive
I. Marginal tax rate should be increasing.
2. Marginal tax rate should be more than average tax rate.
3. Gini coefficient for the post-tax distribution of income should be less than that of pre-tax distribution.
4. Tax amount should be lump sum in nature.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1,2,3and4
(b) 1,2and3
(c) 1 and 4
(d)2 and 3
Ans. (a)
24. Consider the following statements regarding argument for free
1. Free trade leads to maximization of output, income and
2. Free trade prevents monopoly.
3. Free trade protects domestic industries.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 2and3
(d) 1,2and 3
Ans. (b)
25. Marshall-Lerner condition states that the foreign exchange market would be stable if the sum of the price elasticities of the demand for imports and the demand for exports is:
(a)greater than one
(b) less than one
(c)equal to one
(d) equal to zero
Ans. (c)