Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Medical Terms


Medical Terms

AIDS : Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. A disease which results in the total breakdown of the body's immune system, it is caused by acts of homosexuality and heterosexuality. It is likely to emerge as the largest killer by the end of this century. No effective treatment has so been found except ATZ, which is quite expensive and still unreliable.

Allergy : A condition in which a person is sensitive or susceptible to the effects of any drug or an article. Hay fever, asthma, eczema : are allergic diseases.

Anaemia : Bloodlessness due to lack of red blood corpuscles or of hemoglobin, a condition in which person becomes pale in colour and weak in health.

Anaesthetic : A kind of drug which produces temporary insensibility to touch and pain, with or without the loss of consciousness. The best known anaesthetic is chloroform.

Analgesic : A drug which relieves pain, e.g. aspirin.

Antacid : A drug which counteracts acidity in the stomach.

Antibiotics : This is a name given to a series of drugs like penicillin and streptomycin; these are preparations from moulds or mould-like organisms which destroy bacteria and prevent their growth. Their use has revolutionised medicinal effect.

Antibody : Specific substances produced in the blood, as a reaction to antigen.

Antidote : A remedy for counteracting poison.

Antiseptic : A drug which destroys germs, e.g., dettol, carbolic acid.

Anti-toxin : A substance produced by the blood to counteract the effect of a poison or infection.

Appendicitis : This disease is caused by the inflammation of the appendix which results in general feeling of uneasiness and pain in the upper part of abdomen.

Aspirin : To relieve pain; it is safe and widely used for the relief of headache, rheumatic aches and pains.

Asthma : A disease marked by the difficulty in breathing due to spasm of the bronchial muscles.

Astigmatism : A defect in the eyesight, when one cannot distinguish between vertical and horizontal lines; it can be rectified by cylindrical lenses.

Autopsy : A post-mortem examination of a body.

Bacillus : A rod-shaped micro-organism. For example, tubercle bacillus causes tuberculosis.

Bacteria : Germs not visible to naked eye causing several types of diseases.

Beri-Beri : A vitamin B deficiency disease marked by muscular atrophy. It causes numbness of arms and legs and swelling of the feet and arms. Eating of polished rice can cause it.

Bladder : A membranous body situated in the front part of pelvis cavity, which acts as a reservoir of urine.

Blood Bank : The store house of blood to be administered in cases of emergency.

Blood Groups : Human blood has been classified into four groups A, B, AB, and O. In administering blood from one person to another, one has to be careful to administer blood of the same group, otherwise it would prove fatal. Group 0 is universal donor and it can be given to anybody. Similarly Group AB is universal receiver.

Blood Pressure : It is the pressure exerted by blood against the blood vessels; chronic anxiety, perpetual worry and kidney troubles cause high blood pressure. Low blood pressure results in fainting attacks.

Blood Transfusion : Transferring the blood from one person to another in case of loss of blood due to accident or at child-birth, and also in case of anaemic children.

Cardiograph : An instrument for recording the movements of heart.

Cataract : Clouding of the lens of the eye, which prevents clear vision, mostly cured with an operation.

Chicken-pox : A very infectious disease. It is caused by a virus occurring commonly in children. One attack usually gives life-long immunity.

Chromosomes : The bodies contained within the nucleus of every animal or plant cell each containing several hundreds of the hereditary factors called genes. When the cell splits each chromosome splits up Into an identical complement of genes.

Cholera : An acute bacterial infection characterised by severe vomiting and .passing of loose motions frequently, drying of the tissues and painful cramps. It spreads by infected food and water.

Chronic : A chronic disease is one which is prolonged and relatively mild as opposed to an acute one, which is short and severe.

Cinchona : The tree, native to South America, from whose bark quinine is derived.

Colds : This is a highly infectious disease and is caused by a virus. It results in bad throat, headache and watery nose.

Colic : Severe pain in the abdomen, caused by spasm of the internal organs, usually the intestines.

Colour Blindness : Sometimes the vision is quite normal but the patient is not able to distinguish between colours; the most common being the lack of distinction between red and green.

Coma : Complete loss of consciousness.

Deficiency Disease : A disease which is caused by the lack of a certain ingredient in the diet, usually applied to lack of vitamins or fat in foodstuffs such as beri-beri, rickets and scurvy.

Diabetes : It is caused by the inability of the body to make use of sugar in the food, consequently this sugar accumulates in the blood, and is finally passed out in the urine.

Diarrhoea : Loose stools due to many causes.

Diphtheria : An acute infectious disease caused by the growth of a membrane in the throat. It may result in death, since breathing is stopped.

Dysentery : Passing of stools with blood and mucus.

Eczema : A disease due to the inflammation of the skin. It is of two types, dry or wet. In the second type, water oozes out of the skin.

E.E.G. : Electroencephalogram (Electrical writings of the brain). It helps in the diagnosis of major upsets of brain functions. It also helps to locate tumours of the brain.

Endemic : A disease which prevails in a particular area on account of the surrounding conditions, such as Malaria and Leprosy.

Enteric : Typhoid fever.                                                                                                                                  

Enzymes : Organic catalysts which accelerate chemical processes occurring in living organisms. For example, fermentation of sugars into alcohol requires the presence of enzymes. Ptyalin in saliva is another example.

Epidemic : A disease which often attacks the people of a locality, and spreads quickly to other parts also.

Epilepsy : A disease in which the patient falls down unconscious with spasm and froth in the mouth.

Filaric : A disease transmitted by a male mosquito (culex); it is accompanied by high fever, it occurs particularly in Assam and West Bengal.

Flu (Influenza) : A highly contagious disease which is preceded by headache, body pain, throat, cough, and a general feeling of fatigue; it results in watery nose, bad throat and hoarse voice. One should avoid crowds. It is a disease caused by viruses, and a remedy for it ,has not been developed so far.

Genes : The ultimate biological units of, heredity, the part of or place (locus) on the chromosome that datelines physical inheritance and constitution.

Gonorrhea : A venereal. disease.

Gout : A metabolic disease marked by painful inflammation of the joints, deposits of urate of sodium in and around the joints, and an excess of uric acid in the blood.

Gynaecology : The study of the diseases of women.

Haemorrhage : Bleeding due to injury. But it may be due to an internal ulcer or by bursting of any vein due to high blood pressure.

Hay Fever : It is one of the allergic diseases and is caused by abnormal sensitivity to certain grass pollens found in early summer.

Heliotherapy : The treatment of disease by the sun's rays.

Hemiplegia : Paralysis of one side of the body.

Homeopathy : A system of medicine discovered by Hahnemann, a German physician.

Hormone : This is a chemical substance produced by an endocrine or ductless gland. The substance causes a physical reaction in another organ to which it is carried by the bloodstream. Insulin secreted by the pancreas is a good example. Other examples are thyroxin, adrenaline (adrenal glands) and pituitary secretions.

Hydrophobia : A disease caused by the bite of a mad dog or mad jackal. The symptoms sometimes do not appear for six months after the bite; but generally the incubation period is 20-60 days. It is normally fatal once the symptoms appear unless a course  of treatment discovered by Pasteur has been administered.

Hypermetropia : (Long sightedness). One can seethe object at greater distances but not nearer ones; it can be remedied by convex lenses.

Immunity : Power of the living organism to resist and overcome diseases.

Insomnia : A disease of sleeplessness, due to (i) physical, or (ii) mental exertion.

Insulin : The internal secretion of the pancreas which converts blood into energy. Lack of it causes diabetes.

Jaundice : Yellow coloration of the skin and other tissues of, the body by excess of the bile pigment present in the blood and the lymph.

Kala-azar  : Also known as Mediterranean fever. It mostly occurs in tropical countries and its symptoms are the growth and swelling of spleen and liver, etc. Its cure was found by U.N. Brahmachari.

Leprosy : Endemic disease caused by germ similar to that of tuberculosis; it affects the skin and the nerves; deformities arise in the body.

Leukaemia : There is a great increase in the number of white cells in the system, red blood corpuscles break down causing anaemia, there is swelling of the spleen also. Death occurs within a few days.

L.S.D.  : Lysergic acid diethylamide; a drug which produces many symptoms of  schizophrenia; it causes strange sensation : first discovered accidentally by Albert Hoffman, a Swiss chemist. The Hippies are addicted to the drug.

Malaria : It is caused by the bite of a female mosquito, i.e., Anopheles. Use Quinine, Paludrine or Ate brine frequently during the season is advised.

Measles : An acute infectious human disease with red rash.

Meningitis : An infection of the membranes of the brain.

Metabolism : This is a term applied to the breaking up and building of the cells in the human body. The former is called catabolism and the latter anabolism. Its rate depends upon the activity of thyroid gland.

Migraine : An allergic disease, which is accompanied by periodic attacks of headache, etc. It is an incurable disease.

Parasite : Animal or plant living in or on another.

Pathology  : The study of diseases for their own sake, rather than from any intention of curing it.

Penicillin : A new antibiotic drug obtained from moulds which has revolutionised the whole medical treatment. It kills pus germs, and is a specific cure for pneumonia and venereal diseases.

Photosynthesis : The phenomenon by which the plants assimilate their food from the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight. It is also called carbon assimilation.

Piles : There are various veins in the rectum or around the anus. The immediate cause of the disease is pressure on the veins, which prevents the free flow of blood. It is mainly due to constipation and pregnancy. if it grows patient suffers from pain after the bowels have been emptied.

Plasma : The colourless fluid part of blood; it has now become possible to store it, to be used in cases of emergency.

Plastic Surgery : Science of restoring or altering tissues by grafting.

Pneumonia : An inflammatory condition of the lung tissue accompanied by pain in the chest.

Rickets : A disease caused due to the deficiency of vitamin D, common in children. The bones get softened, bent and become deformed.

Ringworm : It is an infectious disease and is caused by a fungus. Hair whiter and bluish patches are formed and it is accompanied by severe itching.

Serum : It is a fluid, which is separated when blood clots.

Scurvy : A bleeding disorder caused by the lack of vitamin C and can be best cured by lime juice which is rich in vitamin C.

Smallpox : An acute infectious disease characterised by fever, severe headache, pain in the joints and rash. Best safeguard is vaccination invented by Edward Jenner. The disease has been completely eliminated.

Tetanus : It is a disease caused by Tetanus bacillus found in rich soil or the dung of a horse. The disease affects the nervous system and it can prove fatal. However, now it is possible to get immunity by anti-tetanus injection.


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